高考英语完型填空高分技巧


高分经验:12 种技巧解高考英语完形填空
1. 跳读首尾句进行预测 一般来讲,高考完形填空的首、尾句通常是不挖空的。先跳读这两句,便可判断体裁, 猜想它要讲什么。若首句交代了 when, where, who, what,即四个 W,那么就是记叙文,很 可能就是一个故事,为了测试语篇的理解能力,出题者特别注意选材的趣味性,其结尾往往 出人意料,耐人寻味;若首句是提出或解释说明某事物,一般来说是说明文;若首句提出一 个论点,那么就是议论文。 因此,要充分利用段首句提供的信息,去挖掘文章的思路,寻找文章的脉络与线索。 2. 利用语法分析解题 对于这类题,考生可以利用平时所学的词汇知识,分析单词(组)的使用范围、动词的及 物和不及物,并利用句子结构、句式特点等知识全面衡量所有选项排除干扰。如: ___51___do you suppose he asked for them? 51. A. What B. How C. Who D. Which 【解析】本题中,do you suppose 为插入成分。he asked for them 是一个相对独立和完整 的句子,因此空格处应该用副词 How 来修饰谓语动词 asked,而不能用代词 What, Who 或 Which。 ___8___ I had been born in the 16th century, I would have had no job. 8. A. Because B. While C. If D. Since 【解析】根据后面的 I had been born in the 16th century 可知这只是个假设,是一个虚拟 语气的条件句。故前面要用 if 引导。 3. 利用固定搭配解题 习惯用法不能随意改动。要做好这类题,需要有较大的词汇量和词语搭配能力、词语辨 析能力,特别是在特定的语境中能灵活运用的能力。如: They couldn’t read or write. They didn’t like to work and they never ___12___ baths. 12. A. took B. washed C. ran D. covered 【解析】本题考查的是固定搭配 take a bath,意为“洗澡”。 I did very badly at school. My headmaster thought I was useless and when I was 14 he said, “You’re never going to be ___2___ but a failure.” 2. A. anything B. something C. everything D. nothing 【解析】本题考查习语 anything but,意为“决不”“根本不”,即校长认为我肯定是一个 失败的人。 4. 利用固定句型解题 完形填空虽然注重考查语境理解, 但同时也会考到一些固定句型, 考生掌握好这些句型, 对确定题目的答案很有帮助。如: I haven’t had a phone in the house for three weeks now, and it’s several days ___19___ I used a phone box. 19. A. as B. when C. if D. since 【解析】本题考查的是 it’s…since…句型,意为“自从……已(多长时间了)”。这句话的 意思是“自从我上次打投币电话已经有好几天了”。
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It wasn’t long ___18___the police caught the thief. 18. A. after B. when C. before D. until 【解析】It wasn’t long before…是常用句型,意为“不久就……”。这里说的是不久警察 就把小偷捉到了。 5. 利用复现信息解题 语篇复现的信息包括与语篇话题相关、 意义相关的词汇同时出现, 结构同现, 同义同现, 修饰同现,因果同现等。因此,利用上下文寻找解题信息,确定正确答案。如: First of all, I respected his ___3___ to teaching. Because his lectures were always well-prepared and clearly delivered, students crowded into his classroom. 3. A. attention B. introduction C. relation D. devotion 【解析】空格后面的句子说到教授的讲座准备充分、讲解清楚(well-prepared and clearly delivered), 由此可知教授为教育做出了很大的贡献, devotion to sth 意为“对……贡献……”, 与下文相通。 I put my head in, expecting the worst. But to my surprise, the room wasn’t empty at all. It had furniture, curtains, a TV, and even paintings on the wall. And then on the well-made bed sat Amy, my new ___44___, dressed neatly. A. roommate B. classmate C. neighbor D. companion 【分析】名词同现,空格前出现了 room, furniture, curtains, a TV 等同现信息可知坐在铺 好的床上的是“我”的室友。 6. 利用跳读法解题 一般而言, 完形填空要填的 20 空中总有一些空是相对简单的。 对于这类空格考生可以 先将其确定下来,之后再逐个去突破其他空。跳过那些不太容易得出答案的题。切忌做题 时循规蹈矩地一个顺着一个地去完成。如: “Visitors!” repeated Josh, wide-awake at once. He___1___ up and looked around. A short distance away, a group of___2___ stood quietly watching us. One of them ___3___ walking toward us. We both jumped to our ___4___ not knowing what to expect. 1. A. sat B. stayed C. thought D. put 2. A. pilots B. natives C. editors D. assistants 3. A. avoided B. delayed C. began D. desired 4. A. boat B. car C. horses D. feet 【解析】 在通读全文的第一遍中, 我们可以很容易地将第四空填出来, 这是固定搭配 jump to one’s feet (跳起来);由此也可推出第三空的答案, 因为有人开始向“我们”走了过来, 所以“我 们”才跳了起来;再根据第一空前面的 wide-awake 可知, 此处指的应该是“我和 Josh 完全清醒, 坐起来,环顾四周”,所以第一空的答案为 A;最后,根据句首 Visitors 可推知第二空的答案 为 B。 7. 巧用排除法解题 在有些情况下, 考生如果不能很有把握地直接得出某一道题的答案, 可以把排除法和词 汇、语法分析结合起来运用,缩小选择的范围,提高正确率。如: He put the books into the return box. And after a brief ___6___ in the toilet, he would be on his way to the playground to meet Eric. 6. A. rest B. break C. walk D. stop
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【解析】此题答案为 D。人不可能在厕所里休息(rest, break)或是散步(walk),由此排除 另外三个选项。 When I started playing ___19___ him, he told me I needed to relax because I looked nervous. 19. A. at B. by C. for D. around 【解析】此题用排除法,by 和 around 都有“在……旁边”的意思,要选都要选,故排除 这两个答案,play at 后接游戏名,是“做……游戏”的意思,也可排除。故答案为 C。 8. 利用逻辑关系解题 尝试从逻辑关系的高度整体上把握, 就会不无惊喜地发现逻辑关系才是征服完形填空的 最佳途径。通过逻辑关系的方法,我们可以通过确切、具体的线索,把答案的逻辑意义推测 出来,从而在答案中寻找表现了相同逻辑意义的选项。这样做,使得题目的难度大大降低。 (1) 句中逻辑关系 Vitamins are similar because they are made of the same elements—usually carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and___45___nitrogen. They are different in that their elements are arranged differently, and each vitamin performs one or more specific functions in the body. 45. A. mostly B. partly C. sometimes D. rarely 【解析】短文中的 usually 和 and 是本题逻辑推理的线索。And 前后构成了并列关系, 即 and 前的 usually carbon, hydrogen, oxygen 这些维生素成分和 and 后面的 nitrogen 成分 形成并列关系,相应修饰 carbon, hydrogen, oxygen 的 usually 必然和修饰 nitrogen 的 45 空 的词构成一一对应的逻辑关系。鉴于此,在 45 空考虑填入的应是和 usually 相对应的频度副 词,而语义与 usually 略有不同。mostly 和 partly 都表示了部分、量的含义,与频度无关。 rarely(很少地,罕有地)虽表示了频度关系,但其意义与 usually 相反,不符合一一对应的一 致性,因此排除。只有 C 项 sometimes(不时,有时)恰到好处地表示了 and 前后两部分的逻 辑对应。故选 C。 (2) 句间逻辑关系 在此,我们发现所谓逻辑关系并不抽象,它往往通过转折、让步、递进、因果等明确的 逻辑关系词来体现。当然,句子的逻辑关系也不一定体现在一句话的内部,它还可以渗透到 篇章的层面上,在句与句之间表现出来。如: There is a tendency to think of each of the arts as a separate area of activity. Many artists, ___1___ would prove that there has always been a warm relationship between the various areas of human activity. 1. A. therefore B. however C. moreover D. otherwise 【解析】 第一句讲各科艺术间是分离的, 但后文讲的却是它们之间有很大的关联。 however 的意思是“然而”,表示转折,符合下文。故本题答案为 however。 9. 巧用背景常识解题 如:After ___2___ the British flag at the Pole, they took a photograph of themselves before they started the 950-mile journey back. 2. A. growing B. putting C. planting D. laying 【解析】根据常识,南极地区冰雪覆盖,须费好大的劲将旗插进极地,plant 在这里的 意思是“安插”“插牢”,故答案为 plant。 Every morning she would give him breakfast in bed and bring him the paper to 30 A. check B.read C. keep D.sign
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【解析】外国人早上有读报的习惯,题中的 paper 指的是报纸,这是理解本文细节的关 键,有了这些文化背景知识,可迅速推断出正确答案为 B。 10. 利用对比结构解题 对比结构常把两种对立的事物或同一事物的两个不同方面并列出来加以比较或对比。 如: A pupil who can do his homework in a quiet and___59___room is in a much better position than a pupil who does his homework in a small, noisy room with the television on. 59. A. furnished B. expensive C. comfortable D. suitable 【分析】 本题利用相似短语之间的对比关系来命题。 设空部分与下文的 a small, noisy room with the television on 存在对比关系。作者想借此说明“相同的作业”对于“不同家庭背景的学 生”所表现出的事实上的不公平。答案为 C。 11. 利用平行结构解题 平行结构指的是结构相同或相似, 意思密切关联, 语法一致的句子或词组成串排列的语 言现象。如: Many people now think that teachers give pupils too much homework. They say that it is___51___for children to work at home in their free time. ___52___, they argue that most teachers do not___53___ plan the homework tasks they give to pupils. 51. A. unnecessary B. uninteresting C. unfortunate D. unimportant 52. A. Nevertheless B. However C. Therefore D. Moreover 53. A. considerably B. favorably C. properly D. pleasantly 【解析】排比结构由 Many people think that...They say that...they argue that...所组成。在 意义上表现了人们(学生家长)对学生课业负担过重的抱怨。该结构中所设置的三个空格的正 确填入,要求考生首先把握结构所体现的“主题” —— 抱怨作业太多。其次,要求考生理解 三句之间在表达意义上的递进关系。即:作业过多“too much homework”;所以,课余学生在 家做作业是没必要的“unnecessary”;不仅如此,教师对作业的设计也不合适“not properly”。故 答案分别为 A、D、C。 12. 利用暗示和对应解题 完形填空难选之处前后通常多有暗示,这种暗示多为后面暗示前面。如: ...he would join student groups to discuss a variety of ___47___: agriculture, diving and mathematics. 47. A. questions B. subjects C. matters D. contents 【解析】此题后面的冒号部分有提示:agriculture,diving and mathematics 是他们谈话 讨论的话题,由此可得出本题的答案为 B。

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