牛津英语高三模块9 Unit4 Grammar_图文

Grammar and usage
Analysis of complicated sentences

You are as wise as Solomon. What does the sentence mean? –Very clever. ‘as wise as Solomon’ is an idiom in Bible, and in it Solomon was the third king of Israel who was known for his wisdom.

What is an idiom? An idiom is a group of words or an expression whose meaning is not straightforward, because it often cannot be understood by looking at the meanings of its separate words.

In the reading text ‘Biblical idioms in English’, we learnt something about idioms. Can you recite the first paragraph of?。 There are three sentences in it.

1. An idiom is a group of words or an expression whose meaning is not straightforward, because it often cannot be understood by looking at the meanings of its separate words.

2. In other words, its meaning can be very different from the apparent meanings of its components.

3. Idioms often use a number of words to represent a single object, person or concept, among other things, and unless you recognize an idiom when it is being used, it is easy to misunderstand what you read or hear spoken. Can you analyze the sentence above?

the first sentence
The sentence is a Complex sentence. It is made up of a main clause and one subordinate (Attribute) clause.

A Complex sentence is made up of a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. They are linked by subordinators(从属连词) such as because, when, where, if, since, that, unless, whereas, whose, while and although.

Discussion
What kinds of Complex sentence do you know? 一、名词性从句 1. 包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从 句、同位语从句 2. 引导名词性从句的连接词可分为三 类:

连接词: that, whether, if(不充当从句的 任何成分) 连接代词: what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which 连接副词: when, where, how, why

e.g. It is a pity that you didn’t go to see the film. She did not know what had happened. The news that Tom would go abroad is told by him.

二、定语从句 定语从句中的所有关系词不但有具体 意义而且都在从句中担当一定的成分。 关系代词:who, whom, whose, which, that等。 关系副词:when, where, why等。 在定语从句中,关系副词=介词+which

e.g. Those who /that are in their forties are required to have a physical examination this afternoon. He has found a good job for which he is qualified. There are lots of examples of idioms where animals are used to create an image.

三、状语从句 1. 时间状语从句 1) 由as, while引导时,表示主句和从句 的动作同时发生,或一个动作发生在 另一个动作或过程中。 2) 由after, when引导时, 表示主句动作在 从句后。 3) 由before, when引导时,表示主句动作 发生在从句动作前。

4) 由whenever, every/each time引导时, 表示主句动作以从句动作为条件而发 生。 5) 由as soon as引导时, 表示主句动作发 生在从句动作的一瞬间后。 6) 由just/hardly…when, no sooner…than 引导时, 表示主句动作发生在从句动 作的一瞬间之前。

e.g. We can leave when you are ready. After she packed up her things, Mary went to book her ticket.

2. 原因状语从句 由 because, as, since或复合连词now that, in that 等引导 3. 地点状语从句 由where, wherever引导。 4. 条件状语从句 由 if, as (so) long as, unless 引导。

5. 目的状语从句 由 so that, in order that, in case等引 导。 6. 结果状语从句 由 so that, so …that, such …that 引导。 7. 让步状语从句 由 though, even though, however, no matter how/what/who等引导。

8. 比较状语从句 由 than, the more…the more, as…as引 导。 9. 方式状语从句 由in the same way, as 等引导。

e.g. As the sun rose the fog dispersed. Whenever she had a cold, she ate only fruit. Now that we have decorated the house, we can move in. The thread breaks where it is weakest.

Robbie didn’t feel as she did. She ought to come down just in case anything happened. If necessary, ring me at home.

the second sentence
In other words, its meaning can be very different from the apparent meanings of its components. The sentence is a long simple sentence.

Every sentence of this type contains a subject and a predicate. In these sentences, it is useful to identify the subject and the predicate.

The subject is what the sentence is about and the predicate tells us something about the subject and always includes a verb. e.g. Islam was started about 1,400 years ago by a man called Muhammad.

the third sentence
Idioms often use a number of words to represent a single object, person or concept, among other things, and unless you recognize an idiom when it is being used, it is easy to misunderstand what you read or hear spoken.

The sentence is a Complex-compound sentence. This happens when coordination(并列关系) and subordination(从属关系) occur in the same sentence.

In compound sentences, there are two or more clauses. They are usually linked by coordinators such as and, or and but. Each clause can stand on its own.

e.g. People who follow this religion study Buddhist sutras and they follow the teachings of Buddha. She is a funny girl, yet I cannot help liking her. You must hurry, or you won’t make it for the train.

the simple sentence

the compound sentence
the complex sentence

subject + predicate subject + predicate +and/or/but+ subject + predicate main clause + subordinate clause

the simple sentence+ the complexcompound sentence and/or/but+ the complex sentence

长难句分析步骤: 1.首先确定句子是简单句、复合句或并列 句。 2.如果是简单句,首先确定主谓结构;接 着确定宾语和宾补;然后确定定语和状 语等次要成分,即找出主、谓、宾各自 的修饰语。

按照所确定的各个成分,给出全句大意。 译文意思应当通顺,并和上下文意义基 本吻合。如意义出入较大、文理不通, 则分析可能有误,这时应考虑重新进行 句子结构分析。

3. 如果是并列句,首先应找出并列连 词并把全句分解为若干个分句;接着 按照简单句的分析方法再细分各分句 的内部结构和句意;然后将全句综合 考虑。

4. 如果是复合句,首先找出从属连词并 确定出主句,这时应特别注意连词省 略现象和多义连词在句中的确切含 义;接着按照简单句的分析方法再细 分各分句的内部结构和句意;

然后确定从句的性质,即该从句在句 中修饰什么词语或结构;最后整体考 虑全句大意,尤其要注意对修饰语的 判断是否准确。

注意事项
1. 是否有同位语和插入语。 2. 是否有省略、倒装和分隔等现象。 3. 替代词的所指对象。 4. 判断并列成分的层次。 5. 句首的并列连词and, or, but, for通常 起承上启下的作用,不要将他们归 入后文的句法分析。

6. 在从句多的句子中,从句中又包含 从句的现象。 7. 非限定动词短语在句中作次要成 分(定语和状语)时又带着自己较 长的从属成分,尤其是状语从句或 宾语从句时的结构分析。

8. 在有多个从句的复合句和并列句 中,状语(单个词、短语或从句) 究竟是全句的修饰语还是某个从句 或词语的修饰语。

Wang Gang found an article on a web page about early religions. Look at the text below and decide if each sentence is (a) a long simple sentence, (b) a compound sentence, (c) a complex sentence, or (d) a compound-complex sentence.

Analyze long and complicated sentences. Answers: 1c 2a 3d 4c 5c 6c 7b

Wang Gang is reading about English proverbs. He has taken some notes and wants to use them in his essay. Look at each group of sentences and help Wang Gang combine them to form one complicated sentence, using words in brackets to help you.

1. One English proverb is ‘the early bird catches the worm’. This proverb is frequently used to talk about hard work being the key to success. (which) ________________________________ One English proverb is ‘the early bird ________________________________ catches the worm’, which is frequently ________________________________ used to talk about hard work being __________________________ the key to success.

2. The proverb ‘great minds think alike, but fools seldom differ’ is very famous. This proverb is usually shortened to ‘great minds think alike’. (although) The proverb ‘great minds think alike, ________________________________ but fools seldom differ’ is very famous ________________________________ although it is usually shortened to ________________________________ ‘great minds think alike’. __________________________

3. The proverb ‘don’t count your chickens until they are hatched’ means ‘don’t count on something going well until it happens’. This proverb is very popular. (and) _________________________________ The proverb ‘don’t count your chickens _________________________________ until they are hatched’ means ‘don’t _________________________________ count on something going well until it _________________________________ happens’, and this proverb is very ____________ popular.

4. The proverb ‘make hay while the sun shines’ is very old. it comes from the old days. people all worked on farms. (and, when) ________________________________ The proverb ‘make hay while the sun ________________________________ shines’ is very old, and it comes from ________________________________ the old days when people all worked ___________________ on farms.

Consolidation
Have a try: We saw several natives advancing towards our party, and one of them came up to us,______ we gave some bells and glasses. A. to which B. to whom C. with whom D. with which

He was educated at a local grammar school, ______ he went on to Cambridge. A. from which B. after that C. after which D. from this

The place ______ the bridge is supposed to be built should be _____ the cross-river traffic is the heaviest. A. which; where B. at which; which C. at which; where D. which; in which

Find the mistake in the following sentences and try to correct then give the reason. 1. Autumn comes, leaves turn yellow. comes – coming; or: Autumn comes, and leaves turn yellow. 2. Have you ever asked him the reason why may explain his being late?
why that/which

3. If a man goes to work goes without breakfast, he may easily feel tired. If a man who goes without breakfast 4. It was early morning that we reached the coast of that city. that when 5. The worker went on with the work which he had left it yesterday. where which

Fill in the blanks with appropriate subordinators. 1.In the autumn, leaves can be seen falling from the tree_____ when a strong wind blows. This kind of scene is often used to express sad feeling in films. 2.______ What all successful people have in common is ____ that they have perseverance.

3. The problem with _______ which we are now faced is that there are not enough desks in the classroom. 4. Our bad living habits, such as polling the air and water, have already destroyed much of the Earth. Only by changing ____ how we live can we save our planet.

Homework
1. Read the content on Page 56 and Page 57 after class. 2. Finish the exercises on Page 127 in Workbook.


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