Unit4 Learning about Language and grammar_图文
Answer keys for Ex.1 on Page 28:
Expressions idiomatic meaning
cover a story trick of the trade
get the facts straight
to report on an important event clever ways known to experts to present ideas fairly
get the wrong end not to understand an idea of the stick properly this is how the story goes this is the story
get a scoop
to get the story first
2. Complete sentence B using a word or phrase from the reading passage which has the opposite meaning to the words underlined in sentence A.
1. A By accident she broke that beautiful bowl.
B She deliberately broke that beautiful bowl.
2. A He did not steal the vase so he didn’t do anything wrong. B He did steal the vase so he is guilty.
3. A She does not get absorbed in her studies for long. B She can concentrate on her studies for a long time. 4. A The reporter went out with an untrained photographer. B The reporter went out with a (an) professional photographer. 5. A Chris is not interested in starting his new job. B Chris is eager to start his new job.
6. A “This room needs a light clean,” explained the housewife. B “ This room needs a thorough clean ,” explained the housewife. 7. A The law allows people to defend themselves against a charge. B The law does not allow people to accuse themselves of a crime. 8. A I don’t mind losing that skill if it is not useful. B I don’t to acquire that skill if it is useful.
Answer keys for Ex.3 on Page 28:
assistant, photographer, delighted, assist, editor, deadline, colleague, amateur, submitted, published, dilemma, assessed, unusual, Meanwhile, sceptical
Answer key for exercise 2 on page 29
1) I did not know how to use that
recorder. Neither did he. Neither he nor I know how to use that recorder.
2) Only then did I begin my work on designing a new bridge. I only began my work on designing a new bridge then. 3) Not only was there a Christmas tree, but also exciting presents under it. There was not only a Christmas tree but also exciting presents under it.
4) “Is everything ready yet?” asked Hu
Xin to the photographer .
Hu Xin asked the photographer, “Is
everything ready yet?”
Answer key for exercise 3 on page 29
1. Only at a stadium in Beijing will you see so many seats. 2. Seldom have I seen a situation which made me so angry. 3. Only after you have acquired the information you need will you be able to write a good report.
4.Never has he given a present to me though he gave a lot (of presents) to his friends.
5.Not only is she good at languages, but also at history and geography. 6.Never before have I read such an exciting report. 7.Not once did she miss a jump when she look part in the horse riding competition.
Answer key for exercise 4 on page 29
1. Only after my operation did my neighbours come round to offer me support. 2. Not once did you come to say you were sorry after breaking my vase. 3. Seldom have I been so happy as when my son graduated from university.
4. Only by doing her exercises every day could Jane hope to run professionally again.
5. Only in a film can people get hit and never seem to feel the pain. 6. Not only did Zhou Jie receive an admission notice to Beijing University, but he also won a scholarship to study in America. 7. Only then did she remember what her aunt told her.
一、概述： 英语句子的基本语序是主语在前，谓语动词在 后（the natural order） ，当语序颠倒时就 成了倒装结构（ the inverted order） 。把 谓语的全部放在主语之前称为完全倒装；而只 把助动词或情态动词放在主语之前，则称为部
二、全部倒装句有： 1. here, there, now, then, thus, out, away, in, up, down等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用 be, come, go, lie, run, rush。当其主语为名词时，通常要 使用倒装。例如： a. There goes the bell. b. Then came the chairman. c. Here is your letter. d. Away went the boy! e. Off goes the woman! 注意：上述全部倒装的句型结构的主语必须是名 词，如果主语是人称代词则不能倒装。 Here he comes. Away they went.
2. 以引导词there开头的句子，须使用倒装结 构，除 there be 外还有there Live / stand / lie / exist等。例如： a. There are three books on the desk． b.There lived an old fisherman near the sea. c.There stands a tall building in the centre of the town.
3.so, neither, nor表示前面所述一件事也 适合另一个人或物时.So用于肯定句 (“…也是这样”), neither /nor用于否 定句(“…也不是/会这样”). Tom can speak French. So can Jack.(Jack也行) If you don’t go, neither will I.(我也不去)
如果上文所述两件事也适合 另一个人或物，就用 So it is /was with sb. 或It is/was the same with sb. Mary went to the bookshop and bought the novel. So it was with Jane. /It was the same with Jane. Jack got up late and could not catch the bus this morning. So it was with Bob. /It was the same with Bob.
另注意： 当 so引出的句子用以对上文内容加以 证实或肯定时，不可用倒装结构。意为 “某 人/物的确如此”。--Tom can speak French. --So he can.(他确实能说法语) b. --Mary went to the bookshop and bought the novel. --So she did.(她的确这样做了) c. Tom asked me to go to play football and so I did.
4. 介词短语做地点状语放在句首 Eg. a.In the cottage lives a family of six. b.Near the bridge was an old cottage. c.In front of the house sat a little boy. d. At the foot of the mountain lived an old man.
三、部分倒装句有: 1. 疑问句 a.Have you seen the film? b.When are we going to drink to your happiness? 注意：如疑问词在句中做主语，则用自然 语序。 c. Who is your sister? d.What is our work?
2. so/such...that的so/such位于句首时， Eg.a.So loudly did the students read that people could hear them out in the street.
b.So small were the words that he could hardly see them. c.Such a famous man he is that everyone wants to take a photo with him.
3. 否定意义的副词或短语位于句首时， 常见的有： in no way, not only…but also, never, little, rarely, seldom, hardly... When, no sooner…than, scarcely…when, in no case, not until(当Not until引出主从复合 句，主句倒装，从句不倒装。)等.
Eg. a. Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room. b. Hardly can I follow you. c. Seldom do I visit USA. d. Never have I seen such a performance . 注意： 如否定词不在句首不倒装。 e. I have never seen such a performance. f. The mother didn't leave the room until the child fell asleep.
4. 省略连词“if”的条件副词分句，如： a.Were I you, I would not do such a thing. = If I were you, I would not do such a thing. b.Would the machine break down again, send it back to us. = If the machine would break down again, send it back to us. c.Had you worked harder, you would have passed. = If you had worked harder, you would have passed.
5. 有些表示“感叹、祝愿”等语气的句子， 也可使用倒装结构 Eg.a. Isn’t it cold! 天气真冷！ b.May both be happy! 祝你们两位幸福！ c. May God bless you. 愿上帝赐福于你。 d. Long live the king! 国王万岁！
6. Only 位于句首，强调句子的状语时。 Eg.a. Only then did I fully understand what my father said. 只有到那时，我才充分理解我父亲讲的话. b. Only when I left school did I realize how important study is. 只有当我离开学校时，我才意识到学习有多 么重要。 注意:如果only强调的是句子主语时。不倒装。 Eg. c. Only he can help us.
Change the following sentences using inversion. 1. Your chance comes to shine now. comes your chance to shine. Now… 2. He little realized how disappointed she was. Little… did he realize how disappointed she was. 3. She had hardly arrived home when it began to rain heavily. had she arrived home when it began Hardly… to rain heavily. 4. We can finish our task in time only in this way. Only… in this way can we finish our task in time.
5. I didn’t find out he was a liar until I saw his letter. I saw his letter did I find out he’s a liar. Not until… 6. Following the roar, a grizzly bear rushed out. rushed a grizzly bear. Following the roar, out… 7. The bird flew off. flew the bird. Off… 8. Many old castles are around the lake. the lake are many old castles. Around… 9. I have seldom been to the shop for shopping. Seldom… have I been to the shop for shopping.
1. ______ D to rain tomorrow , they would put off the meeting. A. If it should B. If were it C. Should it D. were it C got into the room ______ the telephone rang. 2. ______ A. No sooner had he, when B. He hardly had, then C. Hardly had he, when D. He hardly had, then 3. ______ D find out what had happened. A. Until he woke up did he B. Until he woke up to C. Not until did he wake up he D. Not until he woke up did he . 4. Little ______ D about his own health though he was very ill. A. he cared B. he cares C. does he care D. did he care
B the news ______ the enemy 5. Early in the day ______ were gone. A. come, that B. came , that C. comes ,that D. came , what 6. Not only ______ B strict with us, but also ______ for us. A. was the teacher ; did he care B. was the teacher ; he cared C. the teacher was ; did he care D. the teacher was ; did he care 7. ______, A he knows a lot of English . A. Child as he is B. As he is a Child C. A child as he is D. Child though he was 8. ______ C the cat , she has to give it to the neighbor. A. As she likes much B. As she much likes C. Much as she likes D. As much she likes
A 9. Be quick! ______. A. Here comes the bus C. The bus come here
B. The bus here comes D. Here the bus comes
A 10. If you want to go there, ______. A. so will I B. so I will C. I will so
D. so do I
11. In front of the farmhouse ______. D A. does a small boy sit B. did a small boy sit C. sit a small boy D. sat a small boy
12. Scarcely ______ D down when ______ a knock at the door. A. had he sat ; did he hear B. he had sat ; did he hear C. he had sat ; he heard D. had he sat ; he heard
B 13. Here ______. A. does he come C. comes he B that. 14. Only ______ A. can a doctor do C. can do a doctor
B. he comes D. he come
B. a doctor can do D. can a doctor does
A a lie. 15. Not even once ______ A. has Mike told B. Mike has told C. had Mike told D. Mike had told
A into the air. 16. Up ______ A. went the arrow did the arrow go
B. the arrow went C. D. does the arrow go
B what he said. 17. Not for a moment ______ A. I believed B. did I believe C. I would believe D. I believe
C and the students stood up. 18. In ______ A. the teacher comes B. the teacher coming C. came the teacher D. did the teacher come
19. No sooner ______ C begun to speak than I realized that something was wrong. A. he has B. he had C. had he D. did he
1. ---- I would never come to this restaurant again. The food is terrible! ---- _______ . A. Nor am I B. Neither would I C. Same with me D. So do I
答案B。第一个句子使用了would, 用neither 表示附和的意义时，助动词应与上文一致。
2. I failed in the final examination last term and only then _____ the importance of studies.
A. I realized C. had I realized
B. I had realized D. did I realize
解析：答案为D. 句首为“only + 副词”时， 句子要用部分倒装语序；根据语境应为一 般过去时态。
3. ---- Will you go skating with me this winter vacation? ---- It ___ . A. all depended B. all depends C. is all depended D. is all depending 解析：答案B。It all depends 是“不确定”、 “看情况”的意思。