高三英语《非谓语动词和独立主格结构》教案

2010 高考二轮复习英语教案
专题八 非谓语动词和独立主格结构
【专题要点】非谓语动词和独立主格结构主要用法如下:1.动名词和动词不定式作主语、宾 语;2.只跟动名词作宾语的动词或动词短语;3.只跟动词不定式作宾语的常见动词; 4.既可以跟动名词又可以跟动词不定式作宾语,且意义不同的动词或短语;5.不定式、现在 分词、过去分词作宾语补足语的区别;6.不定式、现在分词、过去分词作定语时的区别; 7.不定式、现在分词、过去分词作状语时的区别;8.动名词的复合结构在句中作状语; 9.there be 结构的两种非谓语形式;10.独立主格结构在句中作状语; 11.with 复合结构在句中作状语或定语。 【考纲要求】非谓语动词包括不定式、动词-ing 形式和过去分词三种形式。动词的非谓语 形式是中学英语语法的重点和难点,也是每年高考热点中的热点, 考纲要求掌握:非谓语动 词的时态和语态;他们在英语句子中的作用;非谓语动词的基本用法和含义,非谓语动词在 句子中可以充当多种句子成分,比如主语、宾语、宾语补足语、定语、状语、表语等;掌握 非谓语动词充当相同句子成分时的辨析;掌握非谓语动词在不同的语境、语义下的运用。 对于独立主格结构考纲要求掌握独立主格结构的构成方式;在句子中的作用以及 with 复合 结构。 【教法指引】非谓语动词包括不定式、v-ing 形式和过去分词,是高中英语学习的难点,也 是高考考查的重点。 高中英语非谓语动词是一个重要考点, 教师在引导学生复习备考中要注 意重点突出、训练得当,尤其是对以下要点的复习: 1.不定式、现在分词与过去分词的用法区别;2.非谓语动词的主动式与被动式;3.非谓语动 词完成式的用法;4.非谓语动词用作伴随状语;5.非谓语动词用作目的状语;6.非谓语动词 用作结果状语;7.非谓语动词用作宾语补足语;8.非谓语动词的逻辑主语问题;9.非谓语动 词用作主语的问题;10.“(be+)过去分词+介词”结构;11.动名词的复合结构和 there be 结构的非谓语动词形式。 对于独立主格结构的复习,教师必须要讲清它的构成方式和在句子中的作用以及与 with 复合结构和分词之间的辨析的关系。 【知识网络】 非谓语动词用法

非谓语动词主要包括不定式、 动名词和现在分词。 为了区分这三种不同的非谓语动词的用 法和含义, 我们将分别从三种非谓语动词在句子中做主语、宾语、宾语补足语、定语、 状语、

表语以及一些特殊结构句型等角度来区分其用法和细微含义。 1.不定式和动名词作主语的区别 (1)动名词作主语通常表示抽象动作;而不定式作主语表示具体动作。 Smoking is prohibited(禁止)here.这里禁止抽烟。(抽象) It is not very good for you to smoke so much.你抽这么多烟对你身体很不好。(具体) (2)动名词作主语时,通常用以表示一件已知的事或经验。 不定式短语通常用来表示一件未完成的事或目的。 Climbing mountains is interesting.爬山很有趣。(经验) Driving a car during the rush hour is tiring.在高峰时刻开车令人厌烦。(经验) (3)不定式做主语,一般用 it 当形式主语,把作主语的不定式短语后置。 It took me only five minutes to finish the job. 2.不定式、动名词和分词作表语的区别 (1)不定式作表语 1)不定式作表语一般表示具体动作,特别是表示将来的动作。 To do two things at a time is to do neither.--次做两件事等于未做。 What I would suggest is to start work at once.我的建议是立刻开始干。 2)如果主语是不定式(表示条件) ,表语也是不定式(表示结果) 。 To see is to believe.百闻不如一见。 To work means to earn a living.工作就是为了生活。 3)如果主语是以 aim, duty, hope, idea, happiness, job, plan, problem, purpose, thing, wish 等为中心的名词,或以 what 引导的名词性从句,不定式作表语是对主语起补 充说明 作用。 His wish is to buy a luxurious car in the near future.他的希望是在不远的将来买 一辆豪华轿车。 The function of Louis Sullivan's architecture was to provide large uninterrupted floor areas and to allow ample light into the interior. The most important thing is to negotiate with them about the future of the plant. (2)动名词作表语:动名词作表语,表示抽象的一般性的行为。 Our work is serving the people.我们的工作是为人民服务。 His hobby is collecting stamps.他的爱好是集邮。

(注)动名词作表语时与进行时态中的现在分词形式相同, 但其所属结构迥异, 进行时态说明 动作是由主语完成的。动名词做表语,说明主语的性质或情况。 People cannot but feel puzzled, for they simply cannot understand how he could have made such a stupid mistake. His victory in the final was no more convincing than I had expected. (3)分词作表语 分词做表语有两种情况,一种是现在分词做表语,一种是过去分词做表语,这两者区别是考 试中经常考到的地方。一般来说,表示心理状态的动词如 excite, interest 等都是及物动 词,汉语意思不是“激动”,“高兴”,而是“使激动”、“使高兴”,因而现在分词应该 是“令人激动的”、“令人高兴的”,过去分词则是“感到激动的”和“感到高兴的”。所 以, 凡表示“令人??的”都是-ing 形式, 凡是表示“感到??”都用-ed 形式。 换句话说, 若人对??感兴趣,就是 somebody is interested in...,若人/物本身有兴趣时,就是说 sb./sth. is interesting.这类词常见的有: interesting 使人感到高兴--interested 感到高兴的 exciting 令人激动的--excited 感到激动的 delighting 令人高兴的--delighted 感到高兴的 disappointing 令人失望的--disappointed 感到失望的 encouraging 令人鼓舞的--encouraged 感到鼓舞的 pleasing 令人愉快的--pleased 感到愉快的 puzzling 令人费解的--puzzled 感到费解的 satisfying 令人满意的---satisfied 感到满意的 surprising 令人惊异的--surprised 感到惊异的 worrying 令人担心的--worried 感到担心的 Travelling is interesting but tiring.旅行是有趣的,但是使人疲劳。 The pupils will get confused if they are made to learn too much.如果要学生学得 太多,他们会感到糊涂的。 The argument is very convincing.他的论点很令人信服。 They were very excited at the news.听到这个消息,他们非常激动。 3.不定式和动名词作宾语的区别 英语中大多数动词既可跟不定式,也可跟动名词作直接宾语,但有些动词要求:

(1)不定式做宾语和宾语补足语 1)下面的动词要求不定式做宾语 【口诀记忆】 决心学会想希望,拒绝设法愿假装,主动答应选计划 同意请求帮一帮,愿望似乎就没有,碰巧承担常努力。 attempt 企图 enable 能够 neglect 忽视 afford 负担得起 demand 要求 long 渴望 arrange 安排 destine 注定 mean 意欲,打算 begin 开始 expect 期望 omit 忽略,漏 appear 似乎,显得 determine 决定 manage 设法 cease 停止 hate 憎恨,厌恶 pretend 假装 ask 问 dread 害怕 need 需要 agree 同意 desire 愿望 love 爱 swear 宣誓 volunteer 志愿 wish 希望 bear 承受 endeavor 努力 offer 提供 beg 请求 fail 不能 plan 计划 bother 扰乱;烦恼 forget 忘记 prefer 喜欢,宁愿 care 关心,喜欢 happen 碰巧 prepare 准备 decide 决定 learn 学习 regret 抱歉,遗憾 choose 选择 hesitate 犹豫 profess 表明 claim 要求 hope 希望 promise 承诺,允许 start 开始 undertake 承接 want 想要 consent 同意,赞同 intend 想要 refuse 拒绝 decide 决定 learn 学习 vow 起 contrive 设法,图谋 incline 有?倾向 propose 提议 seek 找,寻觅 try 试图 2)下面的动词要求不定式做宾补:动词+宾语+动词不定式 ask 要求,邀请 get 请,得到 prompt 促使 allow 允许 forbid 禁止 prefer 喜欢,宁愿 announce 宣布 force 强迫 press 迫使

bride 收买 inspire 鼓舞 request 请求 assist 协助 hate 憎恶 pronounce 断定,表示 advise 劝告 exhort 告诫,勉励 pray 请求 authorize 授权,委托 help 帮助 recommend 劝告,推荐 bear 容忍 implore 恳求 remind 提醒 beg 请求 induce 引诱 report 报告 compel 强迫 invite 吸引,邀请, summon 传唤 command 命令 intend 想要,企图 show 显示 drive 驱赶 mean 意欲,打算 train 训练 cause 引起 instruct 指示 require 要求 deserve 应受 leave 使,让 tell 告诉 direct 指导 like 喜欢 tempt 劝诱 entitle 有资格 order 命令 warn 告诫 enable 使能够 need 需要 urge 激励,力说 encourage 鼓励 oblige 不得不 want 想要 condemn 指责,谴责 lead 引起,使得 teach 教 entreat 恳求 permit 允许 wish 希望 (2)有少数动词只能用动名词作宾语 【口诀记忆】 考虑建议盼原谅, 避免错过继续练,否认完成就欣赏 禁止想象才冒险, 不禁介意准逃亡 acknowledge 承认,自认 cease 停止 mention 说到,讲到 admit 承认 tolerate 忍受 dislike 不喜欢,讨厌 advocate:提倡,主张 complete 完成 dread 可怕 appreciate 感激,欣赏 confess 坦白 endure 忍受 avoid 避免 contemplate 细想 enjoy 享有,喜爱 bear 忍受 defer 拖延 envy 嫉妒 can't help 不禁 delay 延迟 escape 逃跑,逃避 can't stand 受不了 deny 否认 excuse 借口 consider 考虑 detest 嫌恶 fancy 幻想,爱好

favor 造成,偏爱 mind 介意 repent 悔悟 figure 描绘,计算 miss 错过 resent 怨恨 finish 完成,结束不得 pardon 原谅,饶恕 resist 抵抗,阻止 forgive 原谅 permit 允许 resume 恢复 imagine 设想 postpone 延迟,延期 risk 冒险 involve 卷入,包含 practise 实行,实践 suggest 建议 hate 讨厌 prevent 阻止 save 营救,储蓄 keep 保持 quit 放弃停止 stand 坚持,忍受 loathe 非常讨厌,厌恶 recall 回想 I appreciate having been given the opportunity to study abroad two years ago.我 很感激两年前给我出国学习的机会。 (3)有些动词后使用动名词和动词不定式作宾语的差别 【口诀记忆】 想起忘记常后悔 1)forget to do 忘记要去做某事(此事未做) forget doing 忘记做过某事(此事已做过或已发生) 2)stop to do 停止、中断(某件事) ,目的是去做另一件事 stop doing 停止正在或经常做的事 3)remember to do 记住去做某事(未做) remember doing 记得做过某事(已做) 4) regret to do 对要做的事遗憾 regret doing 对做过的事遗憾、后悔 5)try to do 努力、企图做某事 try doing 试验、试一试某种办法 6) mean to do 打算,有意要? mean doing 意味着 7)go on to do 继而(去做另外一件事情) go on doing 继续(原先没有做完的事情) 8)propose to do 打算(要做某事) proposing doing 建议(做某事)

9) like /love/hate/ prefer +to do 表示具体行为;+doing sth 表示抽象、倾向概念 (注)如果这些动词前有 should 一词,其后宾语只跟不定式,不能跟动名词。例如: I should like to see him tomorrow. 10) need, want, deserve +动名词表被动意义;+不定式被动态表示“要(修、清理等)”意 思。 Don't you remember seeing the man before?你不记得以前见过那个人吗? You must remember to leave tomorrow.你可要记着是明天动身。 I don't regret telling her what I thought.我不后悔给她讲过我的想法。(已讲过) I regret to have to do this, but I have no choice.我很遗憾必须这样去做,我实在 没办法。(未做但要做) You must try to be more careful.你可要多加小心。 Let's try doing the work some other way.让我们试一试用另外一种办法来做这工作。 I didn't mean to hurt your feeling.我没想要伤害你的感情。 This illness will mean (your) going to hospital.得了这种病(你)就要进医院。 4.不定式、现在分词和过去分词作定语的区别 (1)不定式作定语 1)不定式与其所修饰的名词可能是主谓关系 He was the last one to leave school yesterday.昨天他是最后一个离开教室的。 The train to arrive was from London.将要到站的火车是从伦敦开来的。 2)不定式与其所修饰的名词可能是动宾关系 Get him something to eat.给他拿点儿东西吃。 She has a lot of work to do in the morning.早上他有很多工作要做。 3)不及物动词构成的不定式做定语, 要加上适当的介词和被修饰的名词形成逻辑上的动宾关 系,这里的介词不能省去。 I need a pen to write with.我需要一支笔写字。 There is nothing to worry about.没有什么值得发愁的。 4)不定式修饰一些表示方向、原因、时间、机会、权利等抽象名词如: ability 能力,本领 drive 赶,驾驶 movement 运动,活动 ambition 抱负,野心 effort 努力,尝试 need 需要,需求 campaign 战役,运动 failure 失败,不及格 opportunity 机会

chance 机会 force 力,压力,要点 promise 许诺,希望 courage 勇气 intention 意向,意图 reason 理由,原因 decision 决定 method 方法,方式 light 光,光线,亮光 determination 决心,决定 motive 动机,目的 struggle 奋斗,努力, tendency 倾向,趋势 wish 希望,愿望,祝愿 5)被修饰的名词前有序数词、形容词最高级或 next, second, last, only 和 not a,the 等限定词时候,只能用不定式。 6)不定代词 something, nothing, little, much, a lot 等习惯上用不定式做定语。 John will do anything but work on a farm.除了农活,约翰什么都愿意干。 7)如果其动词要求用不定式做宾语,或者其形容词要求不定式做补语,则相应的名词一般 用不定式做定语。如: tend to do---tendency to do;decide to do = decision to do; be curious to do = curiosity to do His wish to buy a car came true.他要买辆车的愿望实现了。 Their decision to give up the experiment surprised us. 他们放弃这个实验的决定使我们大吃一惊。 He is always the first to come and the last to leave. 他总是第一个到来,最后一个离去。 (2)分词作定语 分词作定语时有下面几个特点: 1)现在分词表示主动意义,过去分词一般表示被动含意。 2)现在分词表示正在进行,过去分词表示状态或做完(完成)的事。 He rushed into the burning house.他冲进了正在燃烧着的房子。 The child standing over there is my brother.站在那儿的男孩子是我弟弟。 The room facing south is our classroom.朝南的房间是我们的教室。 Have you got your watch repaired? 你拿到那个修好的表了吗? He is an advanced teacher.他是个先进教师。 3)下列不及物动词也以过去分词形式做定语或表语,但不具有被动意义,这点要注意: departed, elapsed, faded, fallen, gone, frown-up, retired, returned, risen, set, vanished, much-traveled, newly-arrived, recently-come (3)不定式和分词作定语时的时间关系

一般来说, 不定式所表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之后; 现在分词所表示的动作 与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生;过去分词表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之 前。例如: Do you want to see the doctor to be sent for from Beijing? 你要见那位将从北京请来的医生吗? Do you want to see the doctor working on the case report in the office? 你要见那位正在办公室里写病历的医生吗? 5.不定式和分词作状语的区别 (1)现在分词与过去分词作状语的区别。 现在分词做状语与过去分词做状语的最主要区别在于两者与所修饰的主语的主动与被动关 系的区别。 1)现在分词作状语时,现在分词的动作就是句子主语的动作,它们之间的关系是主动关系。 He went out shutting the door behind him. 他出去后将门随手关上。 Not knowing what to do, he went to his parents for help. 由于不知如何办是好,他去找父母帮忙。 2)过去分词作状语时,过去分词表示的动作是句子主语承受的动作,它们之间的关系是被 动关系。 Given more attention, the trees could have grown better. 如果对这些树多关心一些,它们本来会长得更好。 Faced with difficulties, we must try to overcome them. 在遇到困难的时候,我们必须设法克服。 (2)动词不定式和分词作状语的区别 1)分词作状语一般表示伴随,而不定式常常表示目的。 They stood by the roadside talking about the plan.他们站在路边谈论着这个计划。(伴 随) They stood by the roadside to talk about the plan.他们站在路边为的是谈论这个计 划。(目的) 2)分词作状语放在句子开头,除表示原因之外有时表示时间或条件。动词不定式作状语时, 除了表示目的以外,还表示结果或原因。

Reading attentively,he forgot the time for lunch.由于在专心读书,他忘了吃午饭 的时间。(原因) Reading carefully,he found something he had not known before.他仔细读书时,发 现了一些从前不知道的东西。(时间) Reading carefully,you'll learn something new.只要你仔细阅读,你会学到一些新的 东西。(条件) His family was too poor to support him.他的家庭太穷,不能维持他的生活。(结果) The boy is not tall enough to reach the book shelf.这男孩个子不够高,手伸不到书 架。(结果) We are glad to hear the news.我们很高兴听到这消息。(原因) (3)下面一些句型是不定式做状语时候应该注意的: a:not/never too?to, too?not to , but/only too? to, too ready/eager/apt/inclined to 表示肯定意义 b: 做结果状语的不定式只能出现在句子的末尾, 常见的不定式动词有: find, hear, see, be told, form, give, make, produce 等。 c:不定式做状语时,其逻辑主语一般为句子的主语,否则用 for 引导主语。 6.非谓语动词常考的其它结构 (1)疑问词+不定式结构 疑问词 who,what,which,when,where 和 how 后加不定式可构成一种特殊的不定式短语。 它在句中可以用作主语、宾语、表语和双重宾语。如: When to start has not been decided.何时动身尚未决定。(主语) I don't know what to do.我不知道该怎么办。(宾语) The difficulty was how to cross the river.困难在于如何过河。(表语) I can tell you where to get this book.我可以告诉你哪里可以买到此书。 (双重宾语) 注)A.有时疑问词前可用介词,如: I have no idea of how to do it.我不知道如何做此事。 B.动词 know 后面不能直接跟不定式作宾语,只能跟疑问词(如:how, what)+不定式: While still a young boy, Tom knew to play the piano well and as he grew older, he wrote operas, the most famous of which is Carmen. (2)介词 except 和 but 作“只有?,只能?”讲时跟不定式结构(but 与不带 to 的不定式

连用) 。 When the streets are full of melting snow, you cannot help but getting your shoes wet. (3)不带 to 的不定式 1)在表示生理感觉的动词后的不定式不带 to。这类词有: feel 觉得 observe 注意到,看到 overhear 听到 watch 注视 listen to 听 perceive 察觉,感知 notice 注意 see 看见 look at 看 hear 听 On seeing the young child fell into the lake,Eric sprang to his feet,and went on the rescue. 2)另一类是某些使役动词,如 make, let,have 等。如: Let him do it.让他做吧。 I would have you know that I am ill.我想要你知道我病了。 (注): ①上述感觉动词与使役动词转换为被动结构时.其后的不定式一般需带 to,如: He was seen to come. The boy was made to go to bed early. ②在动词 find 与 help 之后,不定式可带 to 亦可不带 to,如: He was surprised to find the sheep (to) break fence at this season.他发现羊在此 季节越出栅栏,感到惊讶。 3)在 do nothing/anything/everything but(except)结构中。例如: Last night I did nothing but watch TV.昨天晚上,我除了看电视别的什么也没有干。 但是,如果谓语动词不是“do nothing,anything,everything”,那么 but(except)所跟 的不定式则仍须带。 The doctor told him nothing but to stop smoking.医生除了让他戒烟,其它什么都没 有说。 There was nothing for them to do but to remain silent.除了保持沉默以外,他们没 有别有别的办法。 (4)不定式与动名词的逻辑主语和分词独立结构 1)不定式的逻辑主语为:for +名词(或代词宾格)+ 不定式。例如:

I found it impossible for him to do the job alone.我发现他—个人干这活是不可能 的。 (注)在表示人物性格、特性等的形容词后面,常用 of 引出不定式的逻辑主语。例如: It was wise of him to do that.他那样做是明智的。 2)动名词的逻辑主语为;①人称代词的所有格+动名词;②名词's+动名词。例如: Tom insisted on my going with them.他坚持要我和他们一起去。 He dislikes his wife's working late.他不喜欢他妻子工作得很晚。 3)某些形容词,如:careless 等不定式后可以加 of 来引导出其逻辑主语。这类词主要有: absurd, bold, brave, courageous, careful, careless, clever, wise, foolish, silly, stupid, good, nice, kind thoughtful, considerate, greedy, generous, honest, modest, polite, rude, cruel ,selfish, wicked, wrong 等 It is very kind of you to help me.你帮助我太好了。 间或也可用 for + there to be 表示(而且 there 后面的不定式只能是 to be) 。 It's a great pity for there to be much trouble in the company.太遗憾了公司里有这 么多的麻烦。 7.非谓语动词中的有关句型 (1)动名词作主语的句型 1)Doing...+ v. Reading is an art.阅读是门艺术。Seeing is believing.眼见为实。 2) It is + no use, no good (fun, a great pleasure, a waste of time, a bore...) 等名词+doing sth. It is no use crying.哭没有用。It is no good objecting.反对也没有用。 It is a great fun playing football.打篮球很有趣。 It is a waste of time trying to explain.设法解释是浪费时间。 3)It is + useless (nice, good,interesting, expensive 等形容词)+ doing sth. It is useless speaking.光说没用。 It is nice seeing you again.真高兴又遇到了你。 It is good Playing chess after supper.晚饭后弈棋挺好。 It is expensive running this car.开这种小车是浪费。 8.非谓语动词的特殊结构 有些非谓语形式已成为固定用语,用来表示说话人对说话内容所特的态度。

1)现在分词的独立结构 judging from / by?, generally speaking, strictly speaking 2)不定式的独立结构 to tell you the truth, to make things worse, to begin / start with 3)动词原形: Believe it or not (信不信由你) 4)作连词的分词 considering (考虑到,就?而言) ,providing / provided ?假如, supposing 假如 这些词用来表示条件的连词,后接 that 从句。 独立主格结构 一、概念: “独立主格结构”是由名词或代词作为逻辑主语,加上分词、形容词、副词、动词不定式或 介词短语作为逻辑谓语构成。这种结构在形式上与主句没有关系,通常称为“独立主格结 构”。 二、功能: “独立主格结构”实质就是带有自己主语的非限定状语从句。 众所周知非限定性从句通常以 主句的某一成分作为自己的逻辑主语, 从而依附于主句。 而有些非限定性从句和无动词从句 带有自己的主语,在结构上与主句不发生关系,因此成为独立主格结构。其实,虽然叫做独 立主格结构,并不是真正的独立,它还是一种从属分句,在句中有多种作用。如:表原因、 表条件、表方式、表伴随、表时间等,在句中通常起状语作用。 三、形式: 独立主格结构在形式上有两部分组成:第一部分有名词或代词担任,第二部分由分词、动词 不定式、形容词、副词、或介词短语担任。按其结构形式分为:—ing 分词独立主格结构; —ed 分词独立主格结构;无动词独立主格结构等。 四、举例: 1、There being nothing else to do, they gone away. 由于无事可做,他们离开了。 (代词+-ing; 表原因) 2、Miss Wang come into the classroom, books in hand. 王老师走进教室,手里拿着书。 (无动词结构;表伴随) 3、The old man sat in his chair, his eyes closed. 老人坐在椅子上,闭着眼睛。 (名词+-ed; 表状态) 4、Class over, we began to play basketball. 放学了,我们开始玩篮球。 (名词+副词;表时间) 5、Without a word more spoken, he picked up the paper. 没再多说一个字,他拾起那张纸。 (借此结构;表伴随) 6、The last guest to arrive, our party was started. 最后一位客人到了,我们的晚会开始了。 (名词+不定式;表时间) 五、独立主格结构与分词短语作状语的异同: 1、独立主格结构与分词短语都可以转化成状语从句。但是,独立主格结构转换成状语从句 后,有自己的逻辑主语,与主句的主语不一致;而分词短语转化为状语从句后,从句的主语 与主句的主语相同。例: ⑴ If time permit, we’d better have a rest at this weekend. -→Time permitting,

we’d better have a rest at this weekend. 如果时间允许,本周末我们最好休息一下。 ⑵ When we see from the top floor, we can find the garden more beautiful. -→Seeing from the top floor, we can find the garden more beautiful. 从顶楼上看,花园更漂 亮。 2、 还应该注意,分词结构的逻辑主语不是总和主句的主语一致,而是主句的其他成分。语 法上称作“依着原则”; 有些分词结构在句子上找不到它的逻辑主语, 语法上称作“悬垂分 词”。例: ⑴ Looking for my watch in the room, it had taken me a long time. 在屋里找表,用 了我很长时间。(依着原则) ⑵ When planting these flowers, care must be taken not to damage the root. (我们) 种花时必须小心,不能碰坏花根。 (悬垂分词) 六、独立主格结构与独立成分的异同: 1、有的分词短语可以独立存在,在句子中没有逻辑上的主语,实际上已经成了习惯短语。 这些短语有:generally speaking; frankly speaking; judging from; supposing 等等。 例: ⑴ Generally speaking, the rule is very easy to understand.总的来说,这个规则很 容易懂。 ⑵ Judging from what he said, she must be an honest girl. 根据他所说的,她一定很 诚实。 2、有些固定短语是带 to 的不定式,表明说话人的立场和态度,在句中作独立成分。这些短 语有:to be honest; to be sure; to tell you the truth; to cut a long story short; to be frank; to make the matter worse 等等。例: ⑴ To tell you the truth, what I said at the meeting was not my opinion. 说实话, 我在会上说的并不是我的意见。 ⑵ To make the matter worse, he locked his keys in the car. 更糟糕的是,他把钥匙 锁在车里了 七、非谓语动词独立主格结构 在独立主格结构中,非谓语动词和它前面的名词或代词存在着逻辑上的主谓关系。 Such an able man to help you,you will surely succeed sooner or later. 有这么能干的人来帮你, 你迟早一定会成功的。 (such an able man 和 to help you 之间 存在着主谓关系) = Since such an able man will help you, you will surely succeed sooner or later. He seating himself at the desk, his mother began to tell him a story. 他在书桌旁坐好后,他母亲开始给他讲故事。 (seating himself at the desk 拥有了自己 的逻辑主语 he,注意是“主格”) = When he seated himself at the desk, his mother began to tell him a story. The key to the bike lost, he had to walk to school. 由于丢了自行车钥匙,他只好步行去学校。 (lost 的逻辑主语是 the key,lost 也可以用 完成式 having been lost) = Because the key to the bike had been lost, he had to walk to school. A.不定式“独立主格结构” 在“逻辑主语+动词不定式”结构中,动词不定式和它前面的名词或代词存在着逻辑上的主 谓关系。这种结构也可用一个从句或并列分句来表达。

1.动词不定式用主动的形式 在独立主格结构中,动词不定式和它前面的名词或代词存在着逻辑上的主谓关系。 His mother to come tonight,he is busy preparing the dinner. 他母亲今晚要来,他正在忙着准备饭菜。 (= As his mother is to come tonight, he is busy preparing the dinner.) ——will you go to the concert tonight 你今晚去听音乐会吗? ——sorry. So many exercise-books to check, I really can't afford any time. 对不起,有这多的作业要批,我真的抽不出时间。 (=Because I shall check so many exercise-books tonight ,I really can't afford any time.) The four of us agreed on a division of labour , each to translate a quarter of the book. 我们四人同意分工干,每人翻译全书的四分之一。 (=The four of us agreed on a division of labour and each is to translate a quarter of the book.) Many trees,flowers,and grass to be planted, our newly-built school will look even more beautiful. 种上许多的树,花和草后,我们新建的学校将看上去更美。 (=If many trees,flowers,and grass are planted,our newly-built school will look even more beautiful.) B.-ing 形式“独立主格结构” 动词的-ing 形式作状语时,其逻辑主语一般应与句子的主语保持一致。 Being ill, he went home. 由于生病,他回家了。 (= As he was very ill, he went home.) Seating himself at the desk, he began to read a magazine. 在课桌旁坐好后,他开始看杂志。 (= When he had seated himself at the desk, he began to read a magazine.) 1. 表示时间的-ing 形式作“独立主格结构” Everyone being ready, the teacher began his class. 每个人都准备好后,老师开始上课。 (相当于一个时间状语从句 When everyone was ready) The chairman began the meeting , everyone being seated. 每个人坐好后,主席开始开会。 (相当于一个时间状语从句 after everyone was seated) 2. 表示原因的-ing 形式作“独立主格结构” The boy leading the way, we had no trouble finding the strange cave. 由那个男孩 带路,我们没有困难就找到了那奇怪的洞。 (相当于一个原因状语从句 Because the boy led the way) Many eyes watching him, he felt a bit nervous. 许多眼睛看着他,他感到有点儿紧张。 (相当于一个原因状语从句 As many eyes were watching him) 必背: 含有 being 的独立主格结构。 It being National Day today,the streets are very crowded. 今天是国庆节,街上很拥 挤。 = As it is National Day today, the streets are very crowded. There being no further business to discuss, we all went home. 没有别的事可讨论,

我们都回家了。 = As there was no further business to discuss, we all went home. 3. 表示条件的-ing 形式作“独立主格结构” Time permitting, we will have a picnic next week. 时间允许的话,我们下星期将进行一次野炊。 (相当于一个条件状语从句 If time permits) My health allowing, I will work far into the night. 我的健康许可的话,我愿工作到深夜。 (相当于一个条件状语从句 If my health allows) 4. 表示方式的-ing 形式作“独立主格结构” The students are walking in the school happily, each wearing a card in front of his chest. 学生们快乐地在学校里走着,每个人胸前都带着一张卡。 (相当于一个并列分句 and each wears a card in front of his chest) The boy lay on the grass, his eyes looking at the sky. 男孩躺在草地上,眼睛看着天空。 (相当于一个并列分句 and his eyes were looking at the sky) C.-ed 形式“独立主格结构” 与逻辑主语+动词的-ing 形式一样,如果-ed 形式的逻辑主语和句子的主语不一致的话,就 需要用-ed 形式的独立主格结构。 The book written in simple English, English beginners were able to read it. 该书是用简单英语写的,英语初学者也能看懂。 = As the book was written in simple English,English beginners were able to read it. The workers worked still harder, their living conditions greatly improved. 由于工人们的生活条件大大提高,他们工作得更起劲了。 = As their living conditions were greatly improved, the workers worked still harder. He was listening attentively in class, his eyes fixed on the blackboard. 他上课专心听讲,眼睛紧盯着黑板。 = He was listening attentively in class, and his eyes were fixed on the blackboard. The task completed, he had two months' leave. 任务完成以后,他休了两个月的假。 ( =When the task had been completed, he had two months' leave.) 比较: 动词不定式表示动作没有发生或即将发生, 动词-ed 形式表示动作已经结束, 动词-ing 形式 往往表示动作正在进行。 The manager looks worried,many things to settle. 经理看上去很着急, 有这么多的事 情要处理。 (事情还没有处理,而且是由经理本人来处理,用不定式 to settle) The manager looks relaxed, many things settled. 许多事情已经处理好了, 经理看上 去很轻松。 (事情已经处理好了,用动词-ed 形式 settled 表示动作已经结束) The food being cooked, the boy was watching TV. 小孩一边做饭,一边看电视。 (两个 动作同时进行) The food cooked, the boy went to bed. 饭做好了,小孩去睡了。 (两个动作有先后, 饭已做好,小孩才去睡觉的 八、 with、without 引导的独立主格结构 介词 with/without +宾语+宾语的补足语可以构成独立主格结构,上面讨论过的独立主格结

构的几种情况在此结构中都能体现。 A. with+名词代词+形容词 He doesn’t like to sleep with the windows open. 他不喜欢开着窗子睡觉。 = He doesn’t like to sleep when the windows are open. He stood in the rain, with his clothes wet. 他站在雨中,衣服湿透了。 = He stood in the rain, and his clothes were wet. 注意: 在“with+名词代词+形容词”构成的独立主格结构中, 也可用已形容词化的-ing 形式或-ed 形式。 With his son so disappointing,the old man felt unhappy. 由于儿子如此令人失望,老人感到很不快乐。 With his father well-known, the boy didn’t want to study. 父亲如此出名,儿子不想读书。 B. with+名词代词+副词 Our school looks even more beautiful with all the lights on. 所有的灯都打开时,我们的学校看上去更美。 = Our school looks even more beautiful if when all the lights are on. The boy was walking, with his father ahead. 父亲在前,小孩在后走着。 = The boy was walking and his father was ahead. C. with+名词代词+介词短语 He stood at the door, with a computer in his hand. 或 He stood at the door, computer in hand. 他站在门口,手里拿着一部电脑。 = He stood at the door, and a computer was in his hand. Vincent sat at the desk, with a pen in his mouth. 或 Vincent sat at the desk, pen in mouth. 文森特坐在课桌前,嘴里衔着一支笔。 = Vincent sat at the desk, and he had a pen in his mouth. D. with+名词代词+动词的-ed 形式 With his homework done, Peter went out to play. 作业做好了,彼得出去玩了。 = When his homework was done, Peter went out to play. With the signal given, the train started. 信号发出了,火车开始起动了。 = After the signal was given, the train started. I wouldn’t dare go home without the job finished. 工作还没完成,我不敢回家。 = I wouldn’t dare go home because the job was not finished. E. with+名词代词+动词的-ing 形式 The man felt very happy with so many children sitting around him. 有这么多的孩子坐在他周围,那男子感到很高兴。

= The man felt very happy when he found so many children sitting around him. The girl hid her box without anyone knowing where it was. 小女孩把盒子藏了起来,没有人知道它在哪里。 = The girl hid her box and no one knew where it was. Without anyone noticing, he slipped through the window. 他趁没人注意的时候,从窗 口溜走了。 = When no one was noticing, he slipped through the window. F. with+名词代词+动词不定式 The little boy looks sad, with so much homework to do. 有这么多的家庭作业要做,小男孩看上去很不开心。 = The little boy looks sad because he has so much homework to do. The kid feels excited with so many places of interest to visit. 有这么多的名胜可参观,小孩很激动。 The kid feels excited as there are so many places of interest to visit. 提示: 在 with/without 的复合结构中,多数情况下 with 能省略,但 without 不能省略。 Without a word more spoken, she left the meeting room. 她没再说什么话就离开了会议室。 (without 不能省略) 九、独立主格结构的句法功能 独立主格结构在句中除了能充当原因状语、 时间状语、 条件状语和伴随状语外, 还能作定语。 在形式上,“独立主格结构”可位于句首、句中或句尾,并通常用逗号与主句隔开。 A.作状语 独立主格结构作状语,其功能相当于一个状语从句或并列分句。 1.表示时间 Night coming on, we put ourselves up in a small hotel. 夜幕降临,我们在一家小旅 馆住了下来。 (= When night came on, we put ourselves up in a small hotel.) All the guests seated, they began their dinner. 所有的客人就坐后,他们才开始吃饭。 (= When all the guests were seated, they began their dinner.) With everything she needed bought, Grace took a taxi home. 所需要的都买好后,格雷斯打的回家了。 (After everything she needed was bought, Grace took a taxi home.) 2.表示原因 With a lot of difficult problems to settle, the newly-elected president is having a hard time. 有许多难题要解决,新当选的总统日子不好过。 (= As he has a lot of difficult problems to settle, the newly-elected president is having a hard time.) There being no means of transportation, he had to walk home at midnight. 由于在半夜没有交通工具了, 他只好步行回家。 (= As there was no means of transportation, he had to walk home at midnight.) 3.表示条件 Weather permitting, we will hold our yearly sports meeting next week.

如果天气允许的话,我们下星期将举行每年一次的运动会。 (= If weather permits,we will hold our yearly sports meeting next week.) All the work done, you can have a rest. 所有工作做好后,你可以休息。 (=As long as all the work is done, you can have a rest.) Everything taken into consideration, the plan seems to be more practical. 如果从 各方面考虑,你的计划似乎更实际些。 (= If everything is taken into consideration, the plan seems to be more practical.) 提示: 表示时间、原因、条件的独立主格结构一般放在句首,并且不能保留连词。 【误】When class being over, the students left their classroom. 【正】Class (being) over, the students left their classroom. 下课了,学生都离开 了教室。 【误】The moon appearing and they continued their way. 【正】The moon appearing, they continued their way. 月亮出来了,他们继续赶路。 4.表示伴随情况或补充说明 The strange man was walking down the street, with a stick in his hand. 那个奇怪的男人在街上走着,手里拿着根手杖。 (= The strange man was walking down the street, and he carried a stick in his hand.) The murderer was brought in, with his hands tied behind his back. 杀人犯被带了进来,手被捆在背后。 (=The murderer was brought in, and his hands were tied behind his back.) Two hundred people died in the accident, many of them children. 有两百人在事故中丧生,其中许多是儿童。 (Two hundred people died in the accident and many of them were children.) B.作定语 独立主格结构作定语,其功能相当于一个定语从句。 He is the person with a lot of questions to be settled. (with 的复合结构作定语, 修饰 the student) 他就是有许多问题要解决的那个人。 = He is the person who has a lot of questions to be settled. You can use a large plastic bottle with its top cut off. (with 的复合结构作定语, 修饰 bottle) 你可以使用一个颈被砍掉的大塑料瓶。 = You can use a large plastic bottle whose top was cut off. He was walking along the road without any street lights on its both sides. 他走在一条两边没有路灯的马路上。 (without 的复合结构作定语,修饰 the road ) = He was walking along the road that didn’t have any street lights on its both sides. 提示: 在这里我们讨论了很多用连词连接的两个句子改为独立主格结构的情况。 需要提示的是, 不 是所有用连词的地方都可以改为独立主格结构。 If you stand on the top of the mountain,the park looks more beautiful. 如果你站在山顶上, 公园看上去更美。 (不要改为独立主格结构) If you check your test paper carefully, some mistakes can be avoided.

如果你仔细检查试卷的话,有些错误是可以避免的。 (不要改为独立主格结构)


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