一 轮 复 习 语 法 专 练
? 从句只能做主句的某一部分,依附于主句 而存在,不能独立。 ? 从句也具有句子的特征，即有自己的主 谓结构；而且带有引导词。 ? 根据从句在句中的作用，可分为名词性 从句、形容词性（定语）从句和副词性 （状语）从句三类。
? ? ? ? ? 例句：He is the boy that I am looking for. 请大家概括一下从句的三要素： 1、完整的主谓关系 2、恰当的连接词 3、陈述语序
? 名词性从句包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。其关 联词有连词that, if, whether；连接代词what, who, which和连接副词 when, where, why, how 等。
从句 连接词 主语从句 宾语从句 介词后 宾语从句 表语从句 同位语从句
whether if Wh- 词（含 how) 带后缀－ ever的词
1. 连词：that、whether、if ◆用法：只连从句，不做成分，that作宾语时经 常省略。 ◆例句： 他明天要来这件事是真的。 我不知道会议明天能否准时召开。
◆ 为保持句子平衡， that 引导主语从句时， 常用it作形式主语而把真正的主语从句后置。 主要有以下几种情况。例句：
1、难怪他不饿呢，他吃糖吃了一整天了。 It is no wonder that he is not hungry; he has been eating sweets all day. 2、据报道，中国又发射了一颗人造卫星。 It is reported that China has sent another manmade satellite. 3、明天他来不来这里没关系。 It doesn’t matter whether he will come here or not tomorrow. 4、我突然想到昨天我忘记锁门了。 It suddenly occurred to me that I had forgotten to lock the door yesterday.
◆Whether 和if 的用法区别
A：主语从句 B：表语从句 C：同位语从句 D：介词的宾语从句 E：or not 或 直接跟不定式（to do)
2．连接代词：who, whom, whose, what, which。 ◆ 用法：既连接从句，又在从句中做成分。（主、 宾、表、定） ◆例句： 他现在最需要的是你的陪伴。 What he needs most is your company. 我不知道明年我会考上那所大学，但我保证我一 定不会放弃的。 I don’t know which college I will go to next year, but I guarantee that I will never give up. ◆ what 和 which 的区别。
? 3．连接副词： where, when, why, how ◆ 用法：既连接从句，又在从句中做状语。 ◆例句： 我不知道我们会在哪儿开会。 I don’t know where we are going to have the meeting. 我急于想知道的是我们什么时候去参观博物馆。 What I’m anxious to know is when we can visit the museum.
限定性定语从句 1.定语从句类型 非限定性定语从句 关系代词 6个 2.定语从句关系词 关系副词 3个 关系代词 that which who whom whose as 关系副词 when where why
怎样判断一个从句是不是定语从句 概念：定语从句又叫形容词性从句，即一 个句子修饰一个名词的结构 The boy who got injured in the accident was sent to hospital immediately 判断以下句子是不是定语从句并选择
I advise you to cancel ___is unnecessary.
He remembered the weekends ____ he climbed mountains.
We took a picture_____ there is a tower.
A. What B. when C. that D. where E. which
when /in which we worked 1.I’ll never forget the days________________ together. Which/that /省略 2.I’ll never forget the days ___________ we spent together.
3.I went to the place where/ in which ago.
I worked ten years
Which/that /省略 4.I went to the place __________ I visited ten years ago. why/ for which 5.This is the reason ___________________ he was late. that/which 6.This is the reason _______________ he gave.
考点二：只用 that不用 which
①当先行词为all, much, little, few, none, something, anything, everything, nothing等不定代词时
a. All that can be done has been done. b. I am sure she has something (that) you can borrow.
② 先行词被all, every, no, some, any, little, much修饰时：
I’ve read all the books (that) you gave me. ③先行词是序数词或形容词最高级修饰时。 1. This is the best book (that) I’ve ever read. 2. This is the first composition (that) he has written in English.
④先行词被the only, the very, the last 修饰时。 That white flower is the only one (that) I really like.
This is the very book (that) I want to find.
⑤ 当有两个或两个以上分别表示人和物的先行词时， 这个定语从句要用that而不用who (whom)和which 引导。如： He talked about the teachers and schools （that） he had visited.
用which不用that 1.非限定性地语从句 2.在介词加关系代词中
that you don’t 1) Do you have anything ______ understand? that we can do is to give 2) The only thing _____ you some advice. 3) Who is the man that _____ is standing there? 4) She heard a terrible noise， ______ which brought her heart into her mouth.
练一练：that 与 which
填上合适的关系词并分析原因： that/in which/不填 1.The way _________________he explained the sentence to us was not difficult to understand. that/ which/不填 2.The way _________________he explained to us was quite simple. 缺宾语 缺少主语或宾语: 引导词用that / which / 不填(缺宾语时) 主语宾语都不缺: 引导词用that / in which / 不填
3. What surprised me was not what he said but _____ he said it. （湖北） A. the way B. in the way that C. in the way D. the way which
1. Do you know the boy __ ______ your mother to whom is talking? 2. I still remember the day on ___which ____ I first got to Paris. with ______ which I am 3. He gave me some novels _____ not very familiar.
定语从句句首为介词时,后可接的关系词为: 介词+whom / which / whose
e.g. I recognized the boss in whose company my sister was working.
介词的选用原则 1)根据定语从句中谓语动词的习惯搭 配来决定。如： on which I spent 6 ①This is the camera ________ yuan. spend money on sth.为固定搭配 for which I paid 6 ②This is the camera _________ yuan. pay money for sth.为固定搭配
2)根据先行词的搭配习惯来决定。如： ①I remember the day _______ on which I came to my tower of ivory. 强调在具体某一天要用介词on during which I ②I remember the days __________ visited Paris. 强调在某几天时间内要用介词during
for which you Is that the newspaper _________
often write articles?
as\that\which 1. It is such a big stone _____ as nobody can lift. that nobody can lift it. 2. It is such a big stone _____ 3. ______ As is known to all, he is the best student.
归纳： as引导限制性定语从句先行词前常被such, the same, so, as 修饰，即构成such…as , the same …as, so…as, 结构，as在定语从句中应充当成分如：主语、 宾语或表语。
as 与which引导非限制性定语从句都能指代 整句内容，
which/ as is known to The earth is round,_________ all. As is known to all, the earth is round. _____
1. I’ve come to the point where I can’t stand him. 我已经到了无法容忍他的地步了。
解析：如果定语从句分别修饰point, situation, condition和case等表示抽象意义的词，常用where 引 导，意思是“到了某种地步，在某种境况中” 。
1.We are trying to reach a point ____ both sides
will sit down together and talk. （山东）
A. which B. that C. where
2. ---Do you have anything to say for yourself?
---Yes, there’s one point ____ we must insist
on . （江西） A. why B. where C. how D. / 不缺成分用where缺宾语用that/which/不填
1. After living in Paris for fifty years he returned to the small town _____ he grew up as a child.
A. which B. that
2. The film brought the hours back to me______ I was taken good care of in that faraway village. (NMET)
3. ① ____ is reported, the storm will last for
a long time.
②______is reported is that the storm will
last for a long time.
③______is reported that the storm will last
for a long time. A. That C. It B. What D. As
4. The car ____ owner is a musician is in
good condition.(湖北) A. whom C. that B. whose D. which
5. I don’t like the way_____tourists were treated in Sanya. A. on which B. in which
C. in that
? 易错点一：关系代词和关系副词的混用 e.g. 1. I’ll never forget the days when I spent in New York with you. 2. I’ll never forget the days which I visited New York with you. 易错点二：固定句式出错 e.g. 1. Mary is so lovely a girl as everybody loves her. 2. Mary is so lovely a girl that everybody loves. 易错点三：主语和谓语不一致的现象 e.g. 1.Tom is one of the students who likes swimming. 2. Tom is the only one of the students who like swimming.
易错点四：与强调句及其他句型的混合 e.g. 1. Was it in the shop that you bought the recorder that you lost your pen? 易错点五：对先行词概念不明确 e.g. 1. Is this library that you visited yesterday? 2. Is this the library where you visited yesterday? 易错点六：特殊名词作先行词时关系词的选取错误 e.g. 1. I don’t like the way which you speak to her.
易错点七：忽略that和which引导限定性定语从句的区别 e.g. 1. This is the most exciting football game which I have ever seen. （怎么改） 易错点八:介词前置出错 e.g. 1. Tell him all the things on which he should pay attention. (怎么改） 易错点九：which和whose意义不明确 e.g. 1. The book which cover is broken is of great help to all of us.
近年来，高考对定语从句和其它从句如：强调句、 名词性从句和状语从句等的综合考查越来越多，这就要 求考生有扎实的基础知识和较强的综合分析能力。
where\that 定语从句 where borrowed the book. 1.This is the library_____I that borrowed the book. 2.It is from this library____I
3. ---Where did you last see Mr. Smith? 强调句型 ---It was in the hotel____ I lived. A. that B. which C. where D. when
综合考查二：定语从句与同位语从句 that/which that our 1. We all have heard the news_____ team won. that/which/— 2. We don’t believe in the news _________ he told us yesterday.
1. We should go to the place_____ B we are most needed. 2. We should go to the place_____ C needs us most. A. it B. where C. that D. what
1. It was October_____we met in C Damiao for the first time. 2. It was in October_____we met in A Damiao for the first time. A. that B. which C. when D. while
对比训练 1. He is such a good teacher_____ B we all like him. 2. He is such a good teacher_____ C we all like. A. whom B. that C. as D. which
判断下列状语从句的种类 1.While I was wondering at this, our schoolmaster took his place. ( 时间 ) 2. Where there is a will, there is a way. ( 地点 ) 3. Now that/Since everybody is here, let’s begin our meeting. （ ） 原因 4. I’ll speak slowly so that you can understand me. ( 目的 )
5. So clever was he a student that he was able to work out all the difficult problems. ( 结果 ) ? 6. As long as you don’t lose heart, you’ll succeed. ( 条件 ) ? 7. Try as he might, he could not find a job. ( 让步 ) ? 8. The old lady treats the boy as if he were his own son. ( 方式 ) ? 9.He woke up as suddenly as he had fallen asleep. ( 比较 )
一个句子 ____在复合句中用作状语时,在语法上叫 从属连词、________ 名词词组 或 状语从句。从句由_______ 副词 引导。 _______ 时间 地点 状语从句可分为：1) ______ 2) _________ 原因 目的 3) ______ 4) _________ 结果 条件 5) _______ 6) _________ 方式 比较 7) _______ 8) _________ 让步 9) _______ 等
1. when, while , as, before, after, until, till, since, ever since, once, as soon as ，
2. every time, next/last/each time, the first time, the moment, the minute, the instant 3. immediately, instantly, directly 4. hardly…when, no sooner…than, scarcely…when
when, while, as While/ When 1._______________ we were talking, Mr. Smiths came in. When they came home, I was cooking 2._____ dinner. when I 3. I was about to go to bed _______ heard someone knock at the door. While 4. ________ we were watching TV, he was studying. while his brother is thin. 5. He is fat _______ As 6. ______ she sang, tears ran down her face.
连接词when、while、as的用法小结 1、when 的用法： （1）when引导的时间状语从句的谓语动 词可以是延续的，也可以是表短暂性动作 的动词，可用于主句和从句动作同时发生 或从句动作先于主句动作。如： When the film ended, the people went back. When I lived there, I used to go to the seashore on Sundays.
（2）可用作并列连词，其意义为“那 时，这时”，相当于and at this/that time。常用于句式： Somebody was doing something when… Sb. was about to do sth. when… (刚要……这时突然……)
2、连接词while的用法 （1） while意思是“当……的时候”或“在某一 段时间内”，引导的从句动作必须是持续性的， 侧重主句动作和从句动作相对比。 People don’t talk so loudly while others are working. （2）从句和主句的谓语动词都为延续性动词时, 只能用while; while还可作并列连词,表示” 而”. I was reading while he was watching TV.
(1) as 着重强调主句和从句的动作同时或几 乎同时发生，如： The students rose as the teacher entered the classroom. (2)as还可以表示“随着……”，如： As time goes by, it is getting colder and colder. (3) As 还能表示“一边……一边”，如： He looked behind from time to time as he went.
before,after,since before 1. He had left the town the day ______ she arrived. before he left his 2. It was not long ______ hometown. after I (had) finished 3. I played football _____ my homework after I do 4. Please tell her I’ll come _______ some shopping.
before we meet 5. It will not be long ______ each other again. have been (be) at his bedside 6. I __________ became (become) ill. since he _______ is/ has been (be) two years 7. It ____________ began (begin) to use since we _______ this machine.
Conclusion: 1）句型It will be/was＋一段时间＋ before… “还要过多久才……” 如： It will be two years before he leaves the country. 2）句型It will be/was not＋一段时间＋ before… “不多久就……”，如： It was not long before he worked out the problem.
3）句型It be＋一段时间＋since… ,该句型 主句和从句中动词谓语时态的搭配很严格。 It is/has been … since sb. did sth. 如： It is three years since she joined the army. 从句动词为瞬间动词，表示“自……以来， 已经过去多长时间了”。 It is four days since she was ill. 从句谓语动词为延续性动词，表示“自…… 结束以来，已经过去多长时间了”。
till 与until: till/ until 1. He lived with his parents ________ he graduated from college. until he told me did I know the 2. Not ____ truth.
won’t come (will come) 3. The children ___________ home until/ till it’s dark. not until the war was over 4. It was _________ that he returned to his land.
小结： till, until和not…until： 1.until/till引导时间状语从句用于肯定句时， 主句的动词是延续性动词，表示动作或状 态一直持续到until/till所表示的时间，意为 “某动作一直延续到某时间点才停止”。 如： We waited until he came.
2．用于否定句时，主句谓语动词是非延 续性动词，从句为肯定，意为“某动作 直到某时间才开始”。如： He won’t go to bed till/until she returns. 3．till不可以置于句首，而until可以。如： Until you told me I had no idea of it. 4．not…until句型中的强调和倒装说法： It was not until you told me that I had any idea of it. Not until you told me did I have any idea of it.
一 …就 … The moment/ minute/ Immediately/ 1._______________________________ ill. As soon as he saw the monster, he ___________ turned pale. no sooner returned 2、 The spy had _________ home than he was told to go to another country. hardly/scarcely 3、We had _______________returned home when it rained. Scarcely had we begun 4、Hardly/ _______________ when we told to stop.
5) no sooner…than
A. 时态：主句用过去完成时（had + p.p.） 从句用一般过去时
B. 倒装： no sooner/hardly/scarcely放句首， 主句要到装
二. 地点状语从句: where, wherever，no matter where You would let your children play where you can see them. Wherever you are, I will be right there waiting for you. 区分： wherever，no matter where
1.The Red Cross is expected to send help___there is human D suffering. A.whoever B.however C.whatever D.wherever 2.--Mom，what did your doctor say？ --He advised me to live____the air is fresher. D A.in where B.in which C.the place where D.where
三、 原因状语从句 原因状语从句的引导词有： because, as, since now that（既然）, considering that （考虑到）, seeing that（鉴于）
用because, as, since 与for填空:
1.--Why are you crying, Tom?
Because I’ve broken your necklace, --- ________ mom.
2. I went to bed early because _______ I was tired.
because he was 3. I was not kind to him_________ rude.
4. As __ I had a cold, I was absent from school.
5. My mother was ill and I sent for Tom, for ___ he was a doctor. 6.Since ____ we are all here, let’s begin our class.
Conclusion: 1.because直接原因，非推断．语气最 强．回答why
2.since表示“既然”，语气较弱；强调对方 已经知晓，无需加以说明的原因，只可以 放在句首。
3.As“由于”，语气最弱，表示往往是十分 明显的原因，常放在句首，比较口语化。 4.For 放句中，对前面一句话的内容的补充 说明 。
引导条件状语从句的连接词有: if, unless, as/ so long as（只要）, in case,on condition that(条件......), provided (that) (假设），等
1、The WTO cannot live up to its name C it does not include a country that ____ is home to one fifth of mankind. A．as long as B．while C．if D．even though 2、 It is known to all that _____ A you exercise regularly, you won’t keep good health. A. unless B. as long as C. although D. if
If you don’t hurry up, you will miss the plane.
2、unless 相当于 if not，意思是“除非…”“如 果不就…”。
We can’t get there on time unless we book the earliest flight. = We cannot get there on time if we don’t book the earliest flight.
as/so long as, in case 1、I always take something to read when I in case I have to wait. go to the doctor’s ________ 2、I’ll go ___________________ you go.
as/so long as
on condition that：条件是 in case :万一 suppose\supposing (that): 假设，如果
1、You can have my bicycle for a few condition that you return it by days on ______________ Sunday. In case 2、 ___________ anything important happens, please call me up. 3、 Suppose/Supposing _________________ you had one million dollars, what would you do?
五、让步状语从句 though, although, even if/ though, while, no matter…, whatever, however…, as though/although it was 1.He went out, _______________ raining. Although they are poor, they buy a 2._________ great many books.
as he is, he has learnt 3.Child ____ advanced mathematics.
Even if ? _______he is a child, he has learnt advanced mathematics. what ? No matter ________ happens, don’t be discouraged. ? No matter ______ how hard he tried, he couldn’t open the door. ? No matter ______ where you go, you must write to your parents. who you marry in the ? No matter ______ future, he must be an honest man.
1、一般可互换：主句前可用yet, still, 常省略．
Though/ although it sounds strange, （yet） it is true.
2、倒装句和独立副词放句末只能用though. though Strange__________ it may seem, he remained single all his life. though It was hard work, I enjoyed it, _____.
as引导让步状语从句,表示“尽管、虽然”。 但从句要倒装。句型为： adj./adv./单数n.(不加冠词)/v+as+主语+ 谓语… 1、Young as she is, she can help her mother. 2、 Fast as he runs, he is the last one. 3、Try as you may, you might fail as well.
so that, in order that (为了） for fear that（以免， 以防）
so that, in order that ,for fear that, in case
1.He got up early __________________ in order that/ so that he could catch the bus. In order that he could catch the bus, 2.____________
he got up early.
3.I stayed at home all day __________________ you called. for fear that
1、目的状语从句中的谓语动词常与情态动词can, could, may, might, should等连用。如： Take this medicine so that you can recover soon. 2、in order that 常用于正式文体，可放于句首， 也可放于句中；而so that往往只放于句中。 3、目的状语从句可以和动词不定式互换。如： We’ll sit in front of the hall so that/in order that we can hear better.= so as to/ We’ll sit in front of the hall __________ in order to ____________ hear better.
结果状语从句的引导词有： so that, so…that, such…that
so that, so…that, such… that so that 1、I was caught in a shower, ________ all my clothes got wet. so cold _____ that the lake has frozen. 2、It’s ____ so many books there 3、There are ______ that I don’t know which one to borrow. _____ so good a book _______ that 4、It’s _____ I’ve read it again and again. that there was 5、It was such _____ a cold day _____ nobody on the street. Such cold weather remained for three 6、______ that I had to stay at home all day days _____ long.
1、so that引导结果状语从句时，从句中不 带情态动词，that有时可省略。如：
He didn’t plan his time well so (that) he didn’t finish his work in time.
2、当so/such置于句首时，so/such引导的 句子要半倒装。如： Such a nice man is Mike that we all like him. So excited was he that he could not fall asleep.
3、so…that和such…that常用的搭配有： so +adj./adv.+ that 从句 so +adj.+ a/an +可数名词单数形式+that so +many/much/few/little +n. +that such + a/an +adj. +可数名词单数+that such +adj. +可数名词复数/不可数名词+that Jenny is such a clever girl that all the teachers liked her very much.= clever a girl that all the teachers Jenny is so ____________ liked her very much. so few friends that He had ___ ____ he often feels lonely.
八、比较状语从句: as, than, as…as, not so/as…as, the+比 较级… the+比较级 as he 1.His brother is ____ as handsome ___ (is). so/as good ____ as 2.The movie was not ______ I had expected. 3.Your bag is twice as expensive as mine _______ . than he used 4.The driver drives faster _____ to (drive). The more knowledge we learn, 5._________ _________ the happier (happy) we will be.
九、方式状语从句: as（像，如), as if/ though(仿佛、似乎), just as（就像）, 1.He stood up _____ as if (he wanted ) to leave. 2.She always talks to me as if she were (be) my sister. _____ hurt 3.He walked slowly as if he had _______
(hurt) his leg.
4.You should do _____I as do.
I 状语从句的时态问题 1、The house could fall down soon if no one C ______ some quick repair work.
A. has done B. is doing C. does D. had done
2、It is almost five years _______ we saw B each other last time. A. before B. since C. after D. when
在条件，时间和让步从句中，用一般现在时表示一般 将来时，用一般过去时表过去将来时。在 since 引导的
1、So difficult _____ D it to live in an Englishspeaking country that I determined to learn English. A. I have felt B. have I felt C. I did feel D. did I feel 2、Not until all the fish died in the river _____ A how serious the pollution was. A.did the villagers realize B.the villagers realized 状语从句的倒装一般有下面几种情况：① 否定 C. the villagers did realize 词开头；② so\such. 开头；③ as / though 引 D. didn’t the villagers realize
状语从句的省略： 在条件，时间，让步，方式状语从句中，如果从句 的主语和主句的主语一致或者从句的主语是it,而且 谓语包含有be动词，那么可以省略主语或it, 跟be 动词。 1、While (I was) in Beijing , I paid a visit to the Summer Palace. 2、Come tomorrow, if (it is ) possible. 3、If so ,you must go back and get it. 4、She stood at the gate as if (she was ) waiting for someone. 5、Though (it was) cold, he still wore a shirt.
? 从句的学习是难于掌握的内容，在学习 和做题的过程中应注意分清句子结构， 辨析各引导词的不同用法。 ? 要善于把握语言规律，采取不同的方法 和策略应对灵活多变的句式。 ? 平常注意多积累，多观察，学会总结归 纳，做到举一反三。