初高中英语知识衔接时态语态讲义

初高中英语语法衔接之时态与语态
一、动词时态 从时间上来看,英语时态可分为“现在” , “过去” , “将来“和”过去 将来“四大类。 动词共有十六种不同时态。 但常用的时态有:一般现在时、一般过去时、一般将来时、现在进行 时、过去进行时、现在完成时、过去完成时、过去将来时 、现在完 成进行时、将来完成时和将来进行时
I. 一般现在时: 1)经常性、习惯性的动作 I go to work by bus. 2)现在的特征或状态 I am a teacher and I teach English. I love sports. 3)普遍真理 Light travels faster than sound. Water boils at 100℃. 2、谓语构成 1) 肯定句:谓语用动词原形或第三人称单数 Tom’s parents _____ to work by bike every day. Li Tao _______ English every morning. 2) 否定句:谓语用 don’t/doesn't 加动词原形构成 I ________ (not get) up at six every morning. She ____________ (not watch) TV in the evening 3) 一般问句: 用 Do 或 Does 加陈述句(谓语动词用原形) ---______ he _______ (work) in a plastic factory? ---No, he doesn’t. 4) 特殊问句: 疑问词(when/where/why/what/who/how)加一般问句 II. 一般过去时 : 1、一般过去时用法:句中常有表示过去的时间状语如 yesterday, in 1989, once, last week (month, year), at that time, just now 等 1)表示在过去时间里发生的动作或存在的状态 He bought a new bike last week. They were in the office just now.
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2)表示过去经常或反复发生的动作 When I was a small child, I often went to that park and played football. 2、谓语构成 1)肯定句:谓语用动词的过去式 Yesterday, I _____ to a shop and _______ a pen. 2)否定句:助动词 didn’t 加动词原形 She ________(take) any money with her that day. 3)一般问句:助动词 Did 加陈述句(动词用原形) ---____ you _____ to the cinema last night? ---No, I didn’t. 4)特殊问句:疑问词 + 一般问句 ---_______ ____ you find your key? ---I _______ it under my desk.

特殊句式
1. It’s time we ________ (have) a rest. 2. I would rather he _______ (come) with you. would rather 后从句谓语一般用过去式 III. 一般将来时 : 1、一般将来时用法: 表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态 I will go to Tibet some day by plane. He will be busy tonight. 2、谓语构成

肯定句
(1)will 加动词原形 (第一人称也可用 shall ) She __________ back in twenty minutes. (2)be going to 加动词原形 a. 打算,计划做某事 I_____________________ a dictionary tomorrow. b. 即将、眼看要发生 Look at the dark clouds. It________________ . 3)be to 加动词原形:安排好的事 We _____________ at the entrance of the park. 4)按时刻表进行的, 可用现在时表示将来 The plane _________ at a quarter past nine. 5)用进行时表示将来 They _____________ (leave) tomorrow. 能够用于这种表示方法的动词常有:come, leave, go, move, start, arrive, stay
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6)主句是将来时,条件从句用现在时 We ______ (go) to the park if it __________ (not, rain) tomorrow. We _______ (give) it to him when he __________ (arrive). One ____________ (not, learn) English well unless he ___________ (study) hard. If she will make friends with me, I will be happy.

否定句:
will / shall 加 not——won’t / shan’t He ________ come to the party tomorrow.

一般问句:
将 will 提到句首(第一人称用 shall ________ you go to the Summer Palace with us? ________ we have a break?

疑问词 + 一般问句
________________ shall we meet next time? _______ is he going to do tomorrow afternoon? ________ will he turn to for help? ________ shall we do if there is no bus?

IV. 现在进行时:
1、现在进行时用法: 1)表示此时此刻正在进行的动作 I am teaching and you are listening to me. 2)表示目前这段时间内正在进行的动作 He is writing a book this week. 3)与 always 连用表示赞扬、不满等情绪 The girl is always smiling happily. You are always making the same mistake. 2、谓语构成: be 动词(am, is, are) + 现在分词 Tom’s mother ___________ (watch) TV and his father _____________ (read) newspaper. 2)否定句在 be 动词后加 not 一般问句只需把 be 动词提到句首 They _____________ (not, play) football. They _____________ (play) basketball. ___ she _______ (do) her homework now? ---No, she isn’t. she ___________ (write) a letter. ___ she _______ (do) her homework now? ---No, she isn’t. she ___________ (write) a letter.
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V. 过去进行时:
1.、过去进行时用法 表示过去某一时刻或一段时间内正在进行的动作 He was watching TV when I came in. 2、谓语构成 be 动词(was, were) + 现在分词 a. She ___________ (see) a film with her friend this time yesterday. b. We ____________ football when it began to rain

VI. 现在完成时:
1、现在完成时用法: 1)表示动作已经完成(强调发生在过去的动作对现在造成的影响或结果) I have finished my work. He has found his lost key. 2)表示从过去某时开始一直延续到现在的动作或状态 They have worked in that factory for ten years. 2、谓语构成: 1)肯定句 助动词(have, has) + 过去分词 We __________ one hundred apple trees this year. Miss Li _________ an English-Chinese dictionary. 2)否定句: 在助动词(have, has)后加 not——haven’t, hasn’t I ______________ (not, finish) reading the novel. The meeting will begin in five minutes but she _____________ (not, come) yet. 3)一般问句:把助动词(have, has)提到句首 ---______ you ______ (hand) in your homework? ---No, I haven’t. ____ he _____ (tell) you the exciting news? ---Yes, he has. 3、have been 与 have gone 的区别 He has been to Washington twice. 去过 He has gone to Washington. 去了(现在不在这里) VII. 过去完成时 : 1、过去完成时用法: 表示过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成的动作 When I arrived, the film __________ (begin). They ___________ (learn) Chinese for a year before they came to China. He ___________ (finish) writing the report by the end of last month. She told us her parents ___________ (work) in the hospital for twenty years.
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2、过去完成时构成:had + 过去分词 When I got home, they ______ (get) supper ready. He said he _________ to Japan twice. VIII. 过去将来时: 1、过去将来时用法: 表示在过去某一时间看来将要发生的动作 He said he would visit the Palace Museum the next week. 2、过去将来时构成: would + 动原或 was(were) going to + 动原 He told me he _________ (take) me to the US the next month. They said they ______________ (not, allow) any reporter to enter their factory. We told her we _________________ (send) her to Beijing. IX. 现在完成进行时 : 1、用法 从过去开始的动作不间断地延续到现在,有可能继续持续下去。 It __________________ (rain) since this Monday. 2、谓语构成: have / has been doing We __________________ (wait) for him for three Hours. 将来完成时 “will have done” : 表示到将来的某个时间已经完成的行为。 We __________________ (complete) the building by the end of next year. 将来进行时 “will be doing” : 表示在将来的某个时间里正在进行的动作。 Please ask him not to phone me when he comes, I _____________ (have) a meeting at 3 o’clock this afternoon. 以 study 为例,写出动词的各种时态 一般时 进行时 现在 过去 将来 过去将来

完成时

完成进行时

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一、被动语态的构成: be 动词 + 及物动词的过去分词 二、各种时态的被动语态: 主动句变被动句: a. 主动句的宾语变为被动句的主语 b. 被动句的谓语由 “be + 原主动句谓语动词的过去分词” 构成, 由 be 体现时态(语态变了,时态不能变) c. 主动句的主语变为 by 的宾语,可省略 1、一般现在时: The dustmen clean the street every morning. The street is cleaned every morning. 2、一般过去时: We hid the ball behind the door last night. The ball _________ behind the door by us last night. 3、一般将来时: They will plant some pine trees in the park. Some pine trees ________________ in the park. 4、现在进行时:am / is / are + being + 过去分词 The workers are building a new bridge over the river. A new bridge ________________ over the river. 5、过去进行时:was / were + being + 过去分词 The doctors were operating on him when I arrived. He _______________________ when I arrived. 6、现在完成时:have / has + been + 过去分词 He has posted all the letters. All the letters________________. 7、情态动词:must / can / may + be + 过去分词 You must return the book tomorrow. The book ________________ tomorrow. 1、双宾语:一个变主语,另一个不动(间宾前加介词) My friend bought me two English books. I ____________ two English books. Two English books ____________ for me. 2、主动句中省去的 to,被动句中要写出来 The boss made the workers ______ 14 hours a day. The workers were made ________ 14 hours a day.

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练习:变被动语态 1. She asked me to come a little later. 2. We built this house in 2004. 3. He showed me the way to the station. 4. You must do it right now. 5. They are building a new library near our home. 6. They have given us a very difficult job. 7. He will show us a few good films. 8. A large number of people can speak English in the world now. 9. We must put the computer here. 10. At that time they taught him how to cook these vegetables.

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