辽宁马鞍山市 2014 高考英语阅读理解、动词短语精讲讲练（4）及答 案
For thousands of years, the most important two buildings in any British village have been thechurch and the pub. Traditionally, the church and the pub are at the heart of any village or town ,where the people gather together to socialize and exchange news. As a result, British pubs are often old and well preserved. Many of them have become historicsites. The most famous example is the pub in the city of Nottingham call ed "The Old Trip to Jerusa-lem". which dates hack to the year 1189 AD and is probably the oldest pub in England. However, British pubs are not just for kings and queens; they welcome people from all classesand parts of society. On a cold night, the pub's landlord or landlady can always find a warm place for you by the fire. There is always honest and hearty food and plenty of drink available at an affordable price. That' s how things used to be. Things are beginning to change. It is said that the credit crunch(信贷紧缩 ) is causing 39 British pubs a week to go out of business. People do not have enough spare money to spend on beer. Recently, the UK government banned (禁止) smoking in all pubs, and that may also have affected the number of customers going to pubs. This decline(衰退) is happening despite the fact that in 2005 the UK government started to allow pubs to stay open after 11 p.m. Previously, with 11 p.m. as closing time, customers would have to drink quite quickly, meaning they sometimes got more drunk than they would if allowed to drink slowly. The British habit of drinking a lot very quickly is known as "binge drinking", and it causes long-term health problems for people and problems with violent crime for communities. In order to save their businesses, pubs are trying to change with the market. British pubs now offe r something for everyone. A lot of pubs used to be "Working Men's Clubs", meaning that women could not usually enter. Today, however, women can freely enter 99% of pubs without experiencing any problems. Perhaps things are
changing for the better after all. 64. The passage mainly tells us something about A. the long history of British pubs British pubs C. the past and present of British pubs British pubs 65. Which may not be the cause of the decline of British pubs? A. time. C. The ban of smoking. 66. We can infer from the passage that____. A. binge drinking means drinking less beer B. British people used to like drinking slowly C. closing the pubs early will reduce social problems D. British government aims to discourage people from binge drinking 67. We can see from the last paragraph that the author ____. D. Having no spare money. The credit crunch. B. The present closing D. the importance of _ B: the decline of
A. holds an optimistic attitude towards the British pubs B. C. is against the admission of too many women to the pulbs thinks that women in the pubs will cause less social problems
D. thinks that British pubs should offer everything you need
With only two weeks to go before Christmas, buying presents is a lug priority for a lot of people. However, this year not so many people are leaving their homes to browse around the shops. These days lots of people do their shopping in the comfort of their own home with the help of the Internet.
Online shopping is becoming more and more popular for a number of reasons: prices are often lower online, you don't have to queue up in busy shops and you can buy almost any product imagin- able with just a few clicks of your mouse. Computer trends are often man-dominated but this year women are expected to do more shop-ping on the Internet than men. It seems .that women are now more attracted to the convenience of on-line shopping than they used to be. Average spending online this Christmas by women will rise to $240 compared to the slightly lower average $233 for men, while the average spending per person on the high street is only $197. 70% of lnternet users, male and female, are now buying their Christmas gifts online. In the past a lot of people were unwilling to shop online. Many were worried about the security of entering their card details on the Intemet and the reliability of the Internet but as shopping; online has become more widespread, these worries have begun to disappear. 45% of Internet users still do have security worries but it hasn't slowed the ever-increasing numbers of online shoppers. One victim of the online shopping boom is the UK high street. Christmas trading can represent up t o 60% of turnover for some stores. Many companies are concerned that not enough shoppers are coming through their doors in the run-up to Christmas. As a result there are lots of special offers in the shops. Most shops traditionally have sales after Christmas but t his year the bargains have come early. 68. Why don't people browse around the shops to buy Christmas presents thus year? A. B. C. D. Because they don't have enough time. Because Christmas is two weeks away. Because they go shopping on the lnternet. Because it isn't convenient for them to leave their houses.
69. Which of the following is NOT the reason for people liking online shopping? A. Lower prices. C. 70. Saving time. B. Using the bank cards. D. Buying almost whatever you want.
Why were people unwilling to shop online in the past? A. Because men were against shopping online.
B. C. D. 71.
Beca use there were fewer goods on the Internet. Because people worried about the safety of their bank cards. Because they didn't trust the quality of the goods on the Internet.
Many companies on the UK high street have special offers before Christmas A. C. to beat online shops to reward the customers B. to attract more customers D. to reduce the competitions among them
BERLIN-With the crisis in Japan raising fears about nuclear power, Germany and Switzerland said on Monday that they would reassess(重新评估) the safety of their own reactors. Doris Leuthard, the Swiss energy minister, said Switzerland would put off plans to build nuclear plants. She said no new ones would be permitted until experts had reviewed safety standards. Germany will put off "the recently decided extension of the running time of Cerman nuclear plants," Chancellor Angela Merke l told reporters. "This moratorium (延缓) will run for three months and it will allow for a thorough exanunation of the safety s tandards of the country's 17 nuclear power plants. The European Union called for a meeting on Tuesday of nuclear authorities to assess Europe's preparedness. Germany's foreign minister, Cuido Westerwelle, called for a new risk analysis of the counitry' snuclear plants, particularly regarding their cooling systems. He is the leader of the Free Democratic Party, which strongly supports nuclear power. A prev ious government,led by the Social Democrats, passed a law in 2001 to close all the country's nuclear plants by 2021. But Mrs. Merkel' s government changed that decision last year to extend the lives of the plants by an average of 12 years.
In Switzerland, Doris Leuthard said she had already asked to analyze the exact cause of the problems in Japan and draw up new or tougher safety standards
"particularly in terms of seismic(地震的 )safety and cooling." In Russia, the Prime Minister said his govemment would "draw conclusions from what's going on in Japan." 72. Where can you most likely read this passage? A. In a diary. B. In a magazine. D. ln a newspaper.
C. In a science report.
73. How will Germany react to Japan's nuclear crisis? A. B. C. D. 74. Germany will change the decision made last year. Germany will close all the country's nuclear plants, Germany will hold a meeting of nuclear safety authorities. Germany will delay the extension of nuclear plants running time. .
The author mentions all the following EXCEPT A. B. Russia will try to Ieam something from the nuclear power crisis in Japan. The Social Democrats in Germany shares the same view with the Free
Democratic Party. C. The moratorium in Cermany will give time to examine the nuclear plants
safety standards. D. Switzerl and will not build new nuclear plants unless they meet the
experts' safety standards. 75. What is the best title of the passage? A. B. C. D. Nuclear Plants in Europe Are Delayed Europe Is against Building Nuclear Plants Opinions on Nuclear Power Are Opposite. Watch Out for the Danger of Nuclear Power
动词和动词词组 重点 2 五种基本句型中的动词使用 简单句的五种基本句型，通常与及物动词、不及物动词和系动词密不可分。 1.主语+不及物动词 理解不及物动词在此句型中的常用法： （1）一般表达型。此类不及物动词常可与表示距离、持续时间、重量、价值等的副词 修饰语连用。如：Boy, can you go any farther? Boy, can you go any farther? 伙计， 你还走得动吗？ The smoke from our fire rose straight up in the still air. 我们生的火冒出的烟在无风的空气中袅袅上升。 （2）主动形式表示被动含义型。此类常见的动词或短语有：read, sell wash, write, open, draw, wear, happen, take place, break out ,last ,go out ,run out ,cost, spread 等。如： The tickets to the play sold well。那台戏的戏票很畅销。 The accident happened outside my house.这个事故发生在我家房子的外面。 [典例 1]Food and drink are _____,but the men are still cheerful and confident. A. running out B. going out C. spreading D. happening
解析 A 不及物动词的考查。动词 run out 表示“被用完”； go out 表示“出去，熄 灭”；spread 表示“传播”；happen 表示“发生”。根据句意：食物和饮料快用光了，但 这些人仍旧很愉快和 自信。 2.主语+及物动词+宾语 理解及物动词在此句型中带宾语的用法： (1)及物动词+名词或代词作宾语。如： He raised his arms above his head.他把手臂举过头顶。 Will you be spending your holiday abroad this year?你今年准备到国外去度假吗？ (2)及物动词+动名词作宾语。 此类及物动词或动词短语有： avoid, mind, miss, suggest, finish, practice, imagine, enjoy, delay, escape, feel like, put off ,insist on ,give up, can’t help, stick to 等。如： I suggested taking a walk.我建议去散步。
You must not give up studying.你不该放弃学习。 (3)及物动词+不定式作宾语。此类及物动词有：afford, agree, ask, expect, hope, want, wish, manage, pretend, decide, determine, learn, offer, plan, refuse 等。如： I hope to go to college.我希望上大学。 The firm could not afford to pay such large salaries.公司无法支付如此巨额的 工资。 （4）既可接动名词又可接动词不定式的动词（见非谓语动词专题之热点）。 3.主语+系动词+表格 系动词在此句型中的用法： become, come, get, smell, taste, feel, sound, remain, be, stay, appear, go, turn, fall, run, keep 等。 （1）系动词+形容词作表语。如： That argument sounds reasonable,那个观点听起来有道理。 （2）系动词+名词作表语。如： Later he became an acrobat.他后来成为一名杂技演员。 （3）系动词+副词、介词短语或反身代词作表语。如： He is near,他在附近。 [典例 2]The cooking chicken in the pot ______very good. A. smells B. feels C. sounds D. tastes
解析 A 系动词考查题。根据 The cooking chicken 正在煮的的鸡肉，推断出“闻起来 很香”，故用 smell。其它 feel 感觉起来；sound 听起来；taste 尝起来，均不合题意。 4.主语+及物动词+间接宾语+直接宾语 （1）用 to 变换间接宾语的动词：bring, give, hand, offer, show, teach, throw, pass, pay, send, sell, return, tell, allow, lend 等。如： Could you bring me the book?或 Could you bring the book to me ?请你把那本书 带给我好吗？ （2） for 变换间接宾语的动词 make,buy,choose,cook,find,get, order,paint,sing, 用 spare,fetch 等。如： He bought me a bottle of ink.或 He bought a bottle of ink for me .他为我买了 一瓶墨水。
（3）用 for 和 to 或其它介词变换间接宾语的动词：do, leave, play 等。如： Will you do me a favor?或 Will you do a favor for me ?你能帮我忙吗？ [典例 3] Smoking will______harm to you .Please get rid of it. A. do B. give C. make D. find
解析 A 接双宾语的动词考查题。此句的 harm 为直接宾语，to you 为间接宾语。句意 为：吸烟对你有害，请戒掉烟吧。从搭配而言，常说 do sb.harm 或 do harm to sb。故选 A。 5.主语+及物动语+宾语+宾补 （1） 接名词作宾补的动词： find, think, elect, name, call, appoint, consider, make, leave 等。如： They usually call the baby Dick,他们经常把婴儿的名字称为迪克。 （2） 接形容词作宾补的动词： keep, get, lay, drink, push, paint, set, turn, drive, let, call, cut, break, open, hold 等。如： She will make him happy.她将使他幸福。 Please cut the stick short.请把这根棍子砍短点。 （3）接副词、介词短语、分词、动词不定式等作宾补的及物动词：leave, put ,see, notice, watch, observe 等。如： He left me waiting in the rain.他让我在雨中等。 [典例 4] I found _____impossible ______him _____his mind. A. this, to make; change C. this; to make; to change B. it; to make; to change D. it; to make; change
解析 D 及物动词及宾语补足语考查题。根据句子结构分析法可以判断：第一空为形式 宾语 it，第二空为真正的动词不定式作宾语，第三空为使役动词 make 后省去 to 的宾补 change。故选 D 难点 动词词组的使用与辨 析 动词词组的使用和辨析是动词考点中的重点也是难点， 考查形式涉及多项选择题中的语 法和 和词汇知识题、多项选择式完形填空题、短文改错题多种题型。 [典例 1]Kathy _____a lot of Spanish by playing with the native boys and girls. A. picked up B. took up C. made up D. turned up
解析 A 动词词组辨析题。pick up 获得，学到，捡起，使恢复精神；take up 开始从事，
吸收；make up 弥补，虚构；turn up 找到，出现。根据句意：凯西通过与当地孩子们玩耍 而学到了不少西班牙语。故选 A。 [典例 2]Helen always helps her mother even though going to school ______most of her day.(2004·广东卷) A. takes up B. makes up C. saves up D. puts up
解析 A 考查动词词组的辨析。海伦总是帮助她的母亲，即使上学占用了她一天中的大 部分时间。四个短语的意思分别为：take up 占据，填满；make up 形成，构成或组成某物； save up 储存，储蓄；put up 张贴（海报、通告等），提出（意见）供讨论。根据句意判 断 take up 合题意。 [典例 3] You can take anything from the shelf and read, but please _____the books when you’ve finished them.(2004·全国卷Ⅰ) A. put on B. put down C. put back D. put off
解析 C 考查动词词组的辨析。此句句意为：你可以从书架上随便拿书去读，但是读完 以后请 把书放回原处 put on 穿上，伪装；put down 写下，平定；put off 推迟，搪寒； 只有 put back 放回原处合句意。 [典例 4]His mother had thought is would be good for his character to_____from home and earn some money on his own.(2002·北京卷) A. run away B take away C.keep away D.get away
解析 D 考查动词词组的辨析。四个选项都符合语法要求，再看本句句意：他母亲原本 认为他离开家自己赚钱对锻炼他的性格有好处。get away from home 的意思正是“离开家”。 ********************************************************结束