【新步步高】2017高考英语牛津译林版(江苏专用)一轮复习讲义：Book 5 Unit 2 含答案
话题词汇 1.environmentally friendly 环保的 2.pollutant n.污染物 3.recycle v.回收 4.nonrenewable adj.不可再生的 5.disastrous adj.灾难性的 6.alternative energy 替代能源 7.endangered species 濒危物种 8.limited natural resources 有限的自然资源 9.global warming 全球变暖 10.arouse people’s awareness of environmental protection 提高公众的环保意识
经典语篇 你所在的班级正在准备办一期英语墙报，主题为“保护环境，控制污染” ，请你根据以下要 点写一篇英语短文。 1.工业快速发展的同时也造成了环境污染； 2.增强环保意识和控制人口增长可以减少污染； 3.号召人们共同努力，参与环保。 注意：1.词数 150 左右； 2.可适当增加细节，以使行文连贯。 佳作欣赏 We are happy to see that the world economy is developing fast， but with the fast development of industry come different kinds of pollution .We have been surrounded by polluted air， water and soil.It is clear that they have become the problems which worry nearly everyone and the government .
How to prevent pollution？We must both strengthen people’s sense of environmental protection and control the increase of population.We should know that destroying the environment means destroying our own home—the earth. I hope all the people in the world will join hands to protect the environment.Only in this way will we have a good future.
思维发散 1.将第①句改为正常语序 Different kinds of pollution come with the fast development of industry. 2.将第②句改为简单句 They have become the problems worrying nearly everyone and the government. 3.仿照第③句用倒装句完成句子 只有认真观察每个雨滴是怎样汇成小溪的，你才能理解如何用许多小的成就实现梦想。 Only by watching how each raindrop comes down in a stream can you understand how it takes many small accomplishments to realize a dream.
Ⅰ.重点单词 A.写作单词 1.belief (n.)看法；信念 2.impress (vt.)使印象深刻 3.willing (adj.)愿意的，乐意的 4.decrease (vt.& vi.)减少；(n.)减少 5.debate (n.& vi.)辩论；争论，讨论 6.queue (vi.)排队等候；(n.)队，行列 7.quantity (n.)数量 quality (n.)质量；品质 8.particular (adj.)专指的，特指的；特别的；讲究的，挑剔的 particularly (adv.)尤其，特别 9.appreciate (vt.)欣赏，赞赏；感谢；领会 appreciation (n.)感激，感谢；欣赏；理解；(艺术方面的)鉴定，评估 10.illegal (adj.)违法的，非法的 illegally (adv.)违法地，非法地 legal (adj.)法律许可的，合法的
legally (adv.)法律上，合法地 B.阅读单词 11.decade (n.)十年 12.arrest (vt.& n.)逮捕 13.conflict (vi.)冲突，抵触；(n.)冲突；矛盾 14.credit (n.)赞扬，称赞，认可；信用，信誉；学分 15.range (n.)范围；一系列；山脉；(vi.)(在一定范围内)变化；包括；排列，排序 16.conservation (n.)(对自然环境的)保护 conserve (v.)保护；保存 17.consume (vt.)消耗，耗费；消费 consumer (n.)消费者，顾客，用户 18.absorb (vt.)吸收；理解；使全神贯注 absorbed (adj.)全神贯注的，专心致志的 19.production (n.)产量；生产 produce (v.)生产，制造；(n.)产品；产量 product (n.)产品；产物 Ⅱ.重点短语 1.open the floor 自由发言 2.cut back on 减少，削减，缩减 3.use up 用尽 4.run out (of)用完，耗尽 5.clean up 打扫(或清除)干净 6.queue up 排队等候 7.pick out 找出，挑选 8.under way 进行中 9.in/with regard to 关于，至于 10.let off 排放 11.in particular 尤其，特别 12.do one’s part 尽自己的职责 Ⅲ.经典句式 1.It is clear that you are very concerned about the present situation of our environment. 很显然，你们对环境的现状很担忧。 2.Ms Lin suggested we should cut back on the quantity of things we produce in order to save the environment.
林女士建议为了保护环境我们应该削减我们所生产的东西的数量。 3.However，I do agree that we should produce more things from materials that have been recycled，and less from raw materials，the supply of which is growing smaller and smaller. 然而，我非常赞同我们应该利用回收材料制造更多的产品，减少原材料的使用，因为原材料 的供应越来越紧张。 4.What if they run out? 如果它们用完了怎么办呢？ 5.There is no doubt that the world climate has been changing in recent years. 毫无疑问，世界气候近年来一直发生着变化。
1 debate n.& vi.辩论；争论，讨论 [多词一义] debate，argue，quarrel，discuss
?1?debate on/over/about sth.就某事辩论 debate＋从句 讨论?? ?2?under debate 正在讨论中 beyond debate 毋庸臵疑
(1)They debated about who was to blame for the traffic accident until it was 9 o’clock.就谁该 对这起交通事故承担责任，他们一直辩论到 9 点。 (2)Our class held a debate on whether students should take cell phones to school.我们班进行了 关于学生是否应该带手机去学校的辩论。 (3)The suggestion is still under debate. 那个提议仍然还在讨论中。 [词义辨析] debate，argue，quarrel，discuss (1)debate 多指公开、正式场合进行的辩论或严肃的争论，侧重双方各自申诉理由。 (2)argue 指一方坚持自己的意见、立场和观点，通过争论企图说服对方。 (3)quarrel 争吵，因生气而发生语言冲突。 (4)discuss 指为了解决问题或弄清对方的观点而进行的磋商，以便统一认识。 多维训练 (1)选词填空 debate，argue，quarrel，discuss
①He argued with Mary about the best place for a holiday. ②Those girls are always quarrelling over little things. ③In today’s meeting we will further discuss what to teach during the next week. ④The whole class debated heatedly on how to raise enough money. (2)完成句子 ①我们正在讨论下一步该怎么办。 We are debating what to do next. ②这则新闻的真实性毋庸置疑。 The truth of this news is beyond debate. 2 belief n.看法；信念 [应试指导] hold the belief that...在作文中的应用
?1?beyond ?one’s? belief 难以臵信 hold the belief that 持有??的观点 It is one’s belief that...某人相信 ?2?believe v.相信 believe in 信任 believe it or not 信不信由你
(1)The story of his life is beyond my belief. 他的生平令我难以置信。 (2)It is my belief that good manners are important to everyone. 我相信礼貌对大家很重要。 (3)He has lost his belief in God. 他已经不相信上帝了。 多维训练 (1)完成句子 ①人们经常持有发展对环境有害的观点。 People often hold the belief that development is bad for the environment. ②信不信由你，他真的胜利了。 Believe it or not he actually won. (2)The only way to succeed at the highest level is to have total belief than anyone else on the sports field. A how C which 答案 B
you are better
B that D whether
解析 考查同位语从句的引导词。 句意为： 高层次的成功的唯一方法就是要完全相信你在体 育运动方面比任何人都要强。分析结构可知，此处 belief 后接了同位语从句，从句不缺少成 分，用 that 引导，所以正确答案为 B。 3 operate v.经营；动手术；操作?机器?；?机器?运转
?1?operate on/upon sb.给某人动手术 ?2?operation n.手术；操作 be in operation 在运转；在行动中；在实施中 come/go into operation 开始工作?生效?? put/bring into operation 实施；实行 ?3?operator 操作员；话务员
(1)The department store is well operated. 这家百货公司经营得很好。 (2)Do you know how to operate the heating system? 你知道怎么操作这个加热系统吗？ (3)When the machine is in operation，keep away from it. 机器运转时，请勿靠近。 多维训练 (1)用 operate 的适当形式填空 ①The new law will come into operation later this year. ②In the good care of the nurses，the boy is gradually recovering from his heart operation. ③He dialed the operator and put in a call for Rome. (2)The doctor said that the patient had A.to operate C.operated 答案 D 解析 sb.be operated on 某人需要动手术，on 不能省去。 4 measure n.措施，方法；尺度；vt.测量；估量，判定
?1?take measures/steps/action to do sth.采取措施做某事 take one’s measure 量某人的尺寸 make sth.to one’s own measure 照某人的尺寸做?? ?2?measure sth.by...用??衡量某物 be measured in 以??计 measure＋量 量起来???用主动形式?
at once，which made us all worried. B.to be operated D.to be operated on
(1)The center has over 300 scientists devoted to finding effective measures that will stop desertification. 这个中心有 300 多位科学家致力于寻找有效措施来阻止沙漠化。 (2)The government has taken measures to bring down the high prices of daily goods to keep the market stable. 政府已经采取措施来降低日用品的高价格，以保证市场稳定。 (3)Education shouldn’t be measured purely by examination results. 教育不应该纯粹用考试结果来衡量。 (4)Do you know the history of that bridge measuring as long as 200 meters? 你知道那座有 200 米长的桥的历史吗？ 多维训练 (1)完成句子 ①当他宝宝出生时，护士量了一下，孩子 50 厘米长。 When his baby was born，the nurse measured it and it measured 50 centimeters long. ②他们呼吁人们和政府采取措施来对抗它。 They call on people and the government to take measures to fight against it. ③在美国，测量距离以英里计。 In the US，distance is measured in miles. (2)My mother used to make new clothes coming. A.with C.to 答案 C 解析 句意为：妈妈过去常常在春节来临时为我量体裁衣。make sth.to one’s own measure 照某人的尺寸做……，故选择 C。 5 range n.范围；一系列；山脉；vi.?在一定范围内?变化；包括；排列，排序 [应试指导] 非谓语动词句法功能的考查
?1?beyond/out of one’s range/the range of sb.超出某人的范围 within/in the range of 在??范围之内 ?2?range from...to...从??到??之间变化 range between...and...在??到??之间变动
my own measure with the Spring Festival B.for D.by
(1)A wide range of colors and patterns are available. 各种颜色和样式都有。
(2)Be sure that the game you select is within the range of students’ ability. 确保你选的游戏在学生能力范围之内。 (3)She has had a number of different jobs，ranging from chef to swimming instructor. 她做过许多不同的工作，从厨师到游泳教练。 [图解助记]
多维训练 (1)用适当的介词或所给词的适当形式填空 ①Costs range from 50 to several hundred pounds. ②If the target was farther than fifty metres，then it was out of range. ③Ranging(range) from 2 to 98 yuan，the prices are reasonable. (2)This restaurant has become popular for its wide pockets. A.division C.range 答案 C 解析 句意为：这家餐馆因其各种各样适合所有人口味及腰包的食品而深受大家的喜爱。 B.area D.circle of foods that suit all tastes and
division 分离，部门，分歧；area 领域，地区；range 批，组，类，范围，a wide range of sth. 各种各样的??；circle 圆形，圈子。根据句意可知，选 C 项。 6 appreciate v.欣赏；赞赏；感激，感谢；理解；领会 [应试指导] (1)后跟非谓语动词的考查
?1?appreciate doing...感激做?? I would appreciate it if...假如??我将不胜感激 ?2?appreciation n.欣赏；感激 in appreciation of 因赏识??而；因感激??而
(2)写作高级句式：I would appreciate it if...
(1)When you look people in the eye，they feel you appreciate what they are saying. 当你直视别人的眼睛，他们会感觉你欣赏他们所说的话。(2015· 安徽) (2)And I’ll appreciate it very much if you give me an early reply. 如果你能早点回信我将非常感激。 (3)Here I sincerely express my appreciation if you could help find the lost suitcase.
如果你能帮我找到丢失的箱子，我会真诚地表达我的感激之情。 [特别提醒] (1)appreciate 后接 v.ing 形式。 (2)其后只能接“事”作宾语，而不能接“人”作宾语。 (3)其后不直接跟 if 或 when 引导的从句，需先接 it 作形式宾语，再接从句。 多维训练 (1)用所给词的适当形式填空 ①I don’t appreciate being treated(treat) like a secondclass citizen. ②This dinner is being held in appreciation (appreciate) of all your hard work. (2)同义句改写 I would be grateful to you for turning off the lights.(用 appreciate 改写) I’d appreciate it if you would turn off the lights. 7 cut back on减少，削减，缩减 [应试指导] cut 短语语境词义辨析
cut down 砍倒；削减；压缩 cut in 插嘴 cut up 切碎；使痛心 cut off 切断；阻隔 cut out 剪掉；删掉；停止
(1)The doctor told me to cut back on smoking. 医生要我减少吸烟。 (2)I felt I had been cut off from the outside world for years. 我感觉与世隔绝好多年了。 (3)I must cut out going to bed too late. 我必须改掉晚睡的习惯。 多维训练 (1)用 cut 短语填空 ①How can you cut down the risk of cancer? ②He also supplied the north when America cut off energy aid. ③He had cut up the meat before his mother came back. ④Don’t try to cut in while others are talking. (2)Queen Elizabeth Ⅱ，who has reached a major milestone by becoming the longestreigning monarch，has her international travel and lightened her work load somewhat，but still
carries out many royal duties. A.made up for C.cut back on 答案 C 解析 考查动词短语辨析。句意为：女王伊丽莎白二世成为了在位时间最长的君主，这是一 个重要的里程碑，她已经削减了她的国际旅行，这在某种程度上减轻了她的工作量，但是她 仍旧要履行许多皇室义务。 make up for 补偿， 弥补； give way to 给??让路， 让位于； cut back on 削减，缩减；get down to 开始认真考虑，着手处理。根据语境可知选 C。 8 run out of ?人?用完，耗尽；从??中流出/跑出 [多词一义] run out of，give out，use up
run out 结束；用完?主语为物，无被动语态? give out 用完；发出?热、光等?；公布?不及物，一般不用于进行时态? use up 用完?及物?
B.given way to D.got down to
(1)As a matter of fact，we have run out of stock for a few weeks. 事实上，我们的货已脱销几个星期了。 (2)Our food will soon run out. 我们的食物不久就要吃光了。 (3)According to the rule of the competition，we had to use up all the items before the time runs out.However， it is a long and tiring process.As a result， that day， long before I ran out of the time given by the judge，my strength had given out. 根据比赛规则，我们得在时间结束前用完所有的东西。但是，这是一个漫长而累人的过程。 结果，那天在用完裁判规定的时间之前好长时间，我就已经筋疲力尽了。 多维训练 (1)同义句改写 He ran out of his ink.(用 his ink 作主语改写) His ink was ran out of/ran out/gave out/was used up. (2)—What can I do for you，Mum? —The salt has A.run out of C.made use of 答案 D 解析 答句句意为：盐用完了。你最好去商店买些。A、B 两项是及物的；C 项不符合句意， 所以选择 D。 (3)My money ，so I must go to the bank to draw some of my savings before I’ve none
.You’d better go to the shop to buy some. B.used up D.run out
in hand. A.is being run out B.has been run out C.is running out D.has run out 答案 C 解析 根据后半句可知，应该表达即将用完。所以选择 C。 9 pick out挑出，挑选，找出；辨认出
pick up 捡起，拿起?某物?；收听；接送某人；收拾；获得；学会；好转；逮捕，抓捕； 取回；感染 pick off 摘掉；除去
(1)It’s easy to pick him out in a crowd because he is very tall. 很容易从人群中辨认出他，因为他个子高。 (2)He picked his cap up from the floor and stuck it back on his head. 他从地板上拾起帽子，重新戴在头上。 (3)Don’t pick off any of these flowers. 这些花一朵也不要摘。 [图解助记]
多维训练 (1)写出下列句中 pick up 的汉语意思 ①Ridley picked up a pencil and fiddled(不停摆弄) with it.拿起 ②She went over to her parents’ house to pick up some clean clothes.取回 ③Where did you pick up your English？学会 ④They’ve picked up a really severe infection from something they’ve eaten.染上 ⑤We can pick up Italian television.收看到 ⑥Chinese officials hope that trade will pick up when the two countries switch to hard currency.好
转 (2)短语填空 pick out，pick off，pick up
①Her British accent was picked up on her visit to London. ②Pick off all the dead leaves. ③Although he had not seen his sister for twenty years， he picked her out as soon as she got off the plane.
10 credit n.信誉，信用；学分；赞扬，称赞，认可 多维训练 (1)我反对你申请信用卡。 I object to your applying for a credit card. (2)值得称赞的是，他们一直在齐心合力。 To their credit，they are working together. (3)我们必须要停止把公司和商人们当成敌人，并给他们更多的信任！ We need to stop thinking of companies and businessmen as the enemy， and give them more credit! 11 quantity n.数量；量 [特别提醒] (1)in quantity 大量 (2)quantities of＋名词＋复数谓语动词 许多?? (3)a quantity of＋复数名词＋复数谓语动词/＋不可数名词＋单数谓语动词 大量?? 多维训练 (1)用所给词的适当形式填空 ①A large quantity of beer was sold(sell) yesterday. ②Large quantities of food were(be) on the table five minutes ago. (2)完成句子 ①It’s a lot cheaper if you buy it in quantity(大量). ②There are large quantities of(大量的) rain in this area. (3)—Why does the lake smell terrible? —Because large quantities of water A.have polluted C.has been polluted . B.is being polluted D.have been polluted
答案 D 解析 答句句意为：因为大量的水都被污染了。large quantities of 后接名词，无论可数不可 数，谓语动词皆为复数。water 和 pollute 之间是动宾关系，所以选 D。 12 arrest n.& vt.逮捕 多维训练 (1)那个正在做手术的可怜的女孩已经引起了公众的注意。 The poor girl being operated on has arrested/drawn/attracted the public’s attention. (2)The escaped prisoner got sent to prison again. A.to arrest C.arresting 答案 B 解析 get arrested 被逮捕。所以选 B。 13 conflict n.& vi.冲突；矛盾 多维训练 (1)完成句子 ①许多人认为经济发展与环境保护互相冲突。 Many people think that economic development and environmental protection conflict with each other. ②这个与其他的细节冲突。 It is in conflict with other details. ③汤姆总是容易与其他人发生争执。 Tom tends to come into conflict with others. (2)In dealing with public relation ， we should make every effort to prevent the personality. A.contact C.connection 答案 D 解析 句意为：在处理人际关系时，我们应该努力防止个性冲突。由句意知选 D。 14 particular adj.专指的，特指的；特别的；讲究的，挑剔的 [特别提醒] particular 作“特别的，特殊的”讲时，没有比较级和最高级。 多维训练 (1)用适当的介词填空
immediately he turned up at the railway station and was B.arrested D.to be arrested
①The girl is very particular about/over her food. ②The whole meal was good but the wine in particular was excellent. ③This plant is particular to that region. (2)I believe you have seen our exhibits in the show room.What is it A.in place C.in practice 答案 B 解析 in place 在适当的位臵；in practice 在实践中；in point 恰当的，中肯的，切题的。in particular 特别，尤其，符合句意。句意为：我相信你已经在样品间参观了我们的展品。有 什么令你特别感兴趣的新产品吗？ 15
you’re interested in?
B.in particular D.in point
[特别提醒] 表示“全神贯注”的常见短语有：be absorbed in，be lost in，be buried in，fix/focus one’s attention on，devote...to，concentrate one’s mind on，apply oneself to，be addicted to 等。 多维训练 (1)用适当的介、副词填空 ①When deeply absorbed in work，which he often was，he would forget all about eating or sleeping. ②Plants absorb carbon dioxide from the air and moisture from the soil. (2)完成句子 ①在地上鸣叫的小鸟吸引了我的注意力。 The bird crying on the ground absorbed my attention. ②热量被水吸收了。 The heat is absorbed by the water. (3)—Where is Jimmy? —Just now I saw him sitting under the tree， A.absorbed C.to absorb 答案 A 解析 考查非谓语动词。句意为：——Jimmy 在哪儿？——我刚才看见他坐在树下，沉醉于 视频游戏。be absorbed in 专心于，沉醉于。故用过去分词短语作伴随状语。 16 with/in regard to关于，至于 多维训练
in his video games. B.absorbing D.absorb
(1)用 regard 的适当形式填空 ①Davis had very little to say regarding the accident. ②As regards economic issues，he agreed with our view. ③Human life is regarded as part of nature and， as such， the only way for us to survive is to live in harmony with nature.(2015· 福建) ④I have nothing to say with regard to your complaints. (2)I am always delighted when I receive an email from you. shall be pleased to attend. A.On account of C.In view of 答案 D 解析 考查介词短语辨析。句意为：当我收到你的电子邮件时，我总是很高兴。至于 7 月 1 日的聚会，我将很乐意参加。on account of 由于，因为；in response to 响应，回答；in view of 鉴于，考虑到；with regard to 至于，关于。所以选 D。 17 under way进行中 多维训练 短语填空 under way，in the way，in a way， in no way， make one’s way to，lose one’s way (1)In no way will I give in to you. (2)Don’t stand in the way；the bus is coming. (3)Though it rained cats and dogs，he made his way to school. (4)Because of the heavy fog many passengers lost their way and asked the police for help. (5)Preparations for coming sports meeting are well under way. (6)In a way good service sells our products. B.In response to D.With regard to the party on July 1st，I
18 What if they run out？如果它们用完了怎么办呢？ 句型公式：What if...？
What if...？意为 “如果??将会怎样； 即使??又有什么关系？” 为省略结构， 相当于 What shall we/I do if...？what if 中 what 可看作是 what should sb.do 或 what does it matter 或 what would happen 的省略。what if 用于提出假设时，其后句子可用陈述语气?一般现在时?，也可用虚拟语 气?一般过去时或 should＋动词原形?。
What for？为何目的？为何理由？ So what？那又怎么样？ What/How about...？??怎么样？ Guess what？你猜怎么着？ What’s up？＝What’s the matter？怎么了？
(1)What if she finds out that you have lost her book? 如果她发现你弄丢了她的书，怎么办？ (2)What if the talk between the two countries breaks down? 如果两国之间的谈判破裂怎么办？ (3)Guess what？I win a free ticket. 你猜怎么着，我赢了一张免费票！ 多维训练 (1)完成句子 ①—Her father is very rich. —So what(那又怎么样)？She wouldn’t accept his help even if it was offered. ②What if he won’t come(他要是不愿意来怎么办)？Can you tell me? ③How/What about(??怎么样) the two of us going out for a walk? (2)—I’ll take the driving test this month. — A.Why no C.What for 答案 D 解析 句意为：——这个月我要参加驾驶考试。——如果你万一不通过怎么办？。what if... 如果……怎么办，符合句意。所以选 D。 19
There is no doubt that the world climate has been changing in recent years. 毫无疑问，世界气候近年来一直发生着变化。
you should fail? B.How so D.What if
句型公式：There is no doubt that...
?1?There is no doubt 意为“毫无疑问”，后接 that 从句或 about＋名词结构。There is doubt 意为 “??值得怀疑”，后接 whether 引导的从句或 about＋名词结构。 ?2?doubt v.& n.怀疑；疑问，作动词时，其用法如下： ①在否定句和疑问句中，doubt 后接 that 引导的宾语从句。 ②在肯定句中，doubt 后面一般接 whether 或 if 引导的宾语从句。
作名词时，用法如下： ①用于肯定句时，一般接 whether 引导的同位语从句。 ②用于否定句、疑问句时，一般接 that 引导的同位语从句。 ?3?be in doubt 犹豫不决 beyond doubt 无疑地
(1)There is some doubt whether he is suitable for the job.他是否胜任这项工作还有一些疑问。 (2)I have no doubt that you’ll succeed. 我肯定你能成功。 (3)I must say his honesty is beyond doubt. 我得说他的诚实毫无疑问。 多维训练 用适当的连词填空 (1)I don’t doubt that he can finish the task on time. (2)I doubt if/whether they can swim across the river. (3)There is no doubt that she will come in time. (4)I have some doubt whether he will be elected.
微写作 写作素材 (关于环境) 1.在过去的十年里，管理部门在环境保护方面没有尽到职责。 2.现在很多商业界人士乐意减少车辆的产量。 3.这样做是为了减少二氧化碳的排放。 提示：黑体部分用本单元词汇表达。 连句成篇 (将以上句子连成一篇 50 词左右的英语短文) In the past decade ， the administration hasn’t done its part in environmental conservation.Now many businessmen are willing to cut back on the production of vehicles in order to decrease letting off carbon dioxide.
Ⅰ.单项填空 1.I’d appreciate if you could let me know in advance whether or not you will
come.(2014· 陕西，21) A.it C.one 答案 A 解析 考查代词。I’d appreciate it if...是固定句式，意为“假如??我将不胜感激” ，it 作形 式宾语，故选 A 项。 2.It is reported that the clerk was A.arrested C.charged 答案 A 解析 be arrested for 因……而被捕。所以选 A。 3.My uncle hasn’t been able to quit smoking，but at least he has A.cut out C.cut up 答案 B 解析 句意为： 我的叔叔没能戒掉吸烟， 但是至少他抽得少了。 cut out 删除； cut down 减少； cut up 切碎；cut off 切断。所以选 B。 4.Food supplies in the floodstricken area none left. A.have run out C.have been run out 答案 B 解析 句意为：洪灾区的食物供应将要用光了，我们必须在用完之前立即采取行动。由句中 “before there’s none left”可知食物还没有用完，只是将要用完，故可排除表“已用完”的 A 项；而 run out 本身含有被动意义，排除 C、D 两项，故选 B 项表“即将耗尽” 。 5.She has already tried her best.Please don’t be too A.special C.unusual 答案 D 解析 句意为：她已经尽力了，请不要过分挑剔她的工作。be particular about...对……苛求、 挑剔，是固定结构。所以答案选 D。 6.English is a language shared by several diverse cultures， 津，12) A.all of which C.all of them 答案 B
for carrying a false passport. B.accused D.suspected
B.cut down D.cut off
.We must act immediately before there’s B.are running out D.are being run out
about her job.
uses it differently.(2014· 天
B.each of which D.each of them
解析 考查定语从句。句意为：英语是一种被几种不同文化共享的语言，每种文化都用不同 的方式使用它。前后两个分句间无连词，又由标点符号“逗号”可知，此处为非限制性定语 从句，对先行词 diverse cultures 进行补充说明，再由后面谓语动词 uses 可知，B 项正确。 7.Sam A.brought up C.picked up 答案 C 解析 句意为：Sam 只是通过观察别人用电脑就学到了一些电脑知识。bring up 提出，养育； look up 查询，查阅；pick up 无意中学会；set up 建立，创立。所以选 C。 8. in painting，John didn’t notice evening approaching.(2015· 天津，5) B.To be absorbed D.Absorbing some knowledge of the computer just by watching others working on it. B.looked up D.set up
A.To absorb C.Absorbed 答案 C
解析 考查非谓语动词。句意为：由于专心于绘画，约翰没有注意到夜幕正在降临。此处的 Absorbed in painting 相当于原因状语从句 Because he was absorbed in painting 的省略。 9.There’s a note pinned to the door A.saying C.said 答案 A 解析 考查非谓语动词。 分析句子结构可知句中已经有了谓语动词 is， 故首先排除 B 项 says。 A 项 saying 表示主动；C 项 said 表示被动；D 项 having said 表示动作先于 is 的动作发生。 从逻辑关系上看，note 与 say 之间是主动关系，所以选 A 项，在此用现在分词结构作后臵定 语。 10.They had a fierce which was broken years ago. A.debate C.contest 答案 A 解析 句意为： 他们就公司是否应当恢复几年前中断了的这一贸易关系进行了一场激烈的争 论。debate 争论，辩论，指持不同观点的各方据理力争，并最终作出决定。所以选 A。 11.He Olympics. A.regarded C.has regarded 答案 B 解析 句子主语和 regard 之间为被动关系，且是发生在过去的动作，故用一般过去时的被
when the shop will open again.(2014· 山东，6) B.says D.having said
as to whether their company should restore the trade relationship B.disagreement D.conflict
as a national hero for winning the first gold medal for his country in the B.was regarded D.had been regarded
动语态。故选 B 项。 12.—Jim，can you work this Sunday? — A.Why me C.What if 答案 A 解析 考查情景交际。句意为：——吉姆，这个星期天你能工作吗？ ——为什么是我？我 已经连续工作两个星期了。Why me 为什么是我；Why not 为什么不；What if 如果……将 会怎样；So what 那又怎样；Why me 是“Why do you ask me to work this Sunday”的省略。 13.The research project has only been evaluate its success. A.under C.in 答案 A 解析 句意为：这个研究项目仅仅进行了三个月，所以要对它的成绩作出评价为时尚早。 B.on D.by way for three months，so it’s too early to ？ I’ve been working for two weeks on end.(2015· 江苏，23) B.Why not D.So what
under way 表示“在进行之中” ，符合句意。故选 A 项。 14.There is still some doubt there is no doubt A.that；that C.that；whether 答案 D 解析 名词 doubt 用在肯定句中后接 whether 引导的同位语从句；用在否定句中后接 that 引 导的同位语从句。故选 D 项。 15.He had a wonderful childhood， A.travel C.travelled 答案 D 解析 句意为：他有一个非常美好的童年，那时他跟着他的妈妈周游世界。从句意看他和旅 游之间为主动关系，又因为 He had a wonderful childhood 是一个完整的句子，故选 D 项。 Ⅱ.阅读理解 Outdoor air pollution leads to more than 3 million premature deaths each year， and more than two thirds of them occur in China and India，according to new research.The authors estimate that without government intervention，the total number of deaths could double by 2050. The study，published in the journal Nature，identifies particulate matter(悬浮微粒) as the prime pollutant leading to premature mortality.Particulate matter ， a substance formed as a
the autumn sports meeting will be held in our school，but
it will be held soon after our National Day holiday. B.whether；whether D.whether；that
with his mother to all corners of the world. B.to travel D.travelling
combination of different materials released into the air，is thought to be harmful to human health once it exceeds 2.5 micrometers in diameter.Researchers also identified ozone as a contributor to dangerous air quality. The causes of air pollution vary dramatically from place to place.In India and China，the study says ， emissions from residential heating and cooking drive air pollution by creating unhealthy quantities of smoke.Overall ， residential heating emissions cause one third of air pollutionrelated deaths worldwide. In highly regulated areas ， like the United States ， Europe and Japan ， emissions from agriculture tend to be primary contributors to air pollution.Fertilizer used in agriculture releases ammonia into the atmosphere，a process that creates harmful particulate matter.Globally，air pollution from agriculture kills more than 600,000 people annually，the study finds. The findings are consistent with a 2014 report from the World Health Organization that suggested that 7 million deaths occur annually due to both indoor and outdoor air pollution. The study’s conclusions give a sense of urgency to efforts to reduce air pollution but present challenges because of difficulty regulating heating activity in people’s homes，according to study author Jos Lelieveld.People who live in the most affected areas should be provided with information about less toxic heating methods，he said. “It’s important to reduce emissions from residential energy use， ” Lelieveld said on a conference call for journalists.“You can’t ask people to stop eating and cooking，but you can provide better technologies.” Air pollution contributes to a variety of ailments that eventually lead to premature mortality like lung cancer，stroke and heart failure，according to the study.Another study published this week in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives reached similar conclusions showing the devastating (毁灭性的) effects of pollution on individual health.Researchers found that chronic exposure to particulate matter increases the chance of early death by 3%.That risk is especially high for heart disease；the chance a person will die of heart disease increases by around 10% with chronic exposure to particulate matter. Researchers found that the number of deaths is expected to double by 2050 without new government policies.Nearly all of the increase will occur in Asia，according to the report. 16.Which of the following contributes to the air pollution? A.Particulate matter. C.Smoke. 答案 D 解析 细节理解题。根据第二段第一句和最后一句，可知悬浮微粒和臭氧导致了空气污染。 故选 D。 17.Which of the following is NOT true?
B.Ozone. D.Both A and B.
A.Residential heating emissions cause two thirds of air pollutionrelated deaths worldwide. B.7 million deaths occur annually due to air pollution. C.Air pollution from agriculture kills more than 600,000 people annually. D.The causes of air pollution vary dramatically from place to place. 答案 A 解析 细节理解题。 根据第三段最后一句 “Overall， residential heating emissions cause one third of air pollutionrelated deaths worldwide.”可知住宅供暖排放物导致了世界范围内三分之一的 与空气污染相关的死亡事件。故选项 A 说法错误。分别根据第五段、第四段最后一句和第 三段第一句可知 B、C、D 三项说法正确。 18.What might air pollution lead to? A.Lung cancer. C.Heart failure. 答案 D 解析 细节理解题。根据倒数第二段“Air pollution contributes to a variety of ailments that eventually lead to premature mortality like lung cancer，stroke and heart failure，according to the study.”可知空气污染最后会导致肺癌，中风，心力衰竭。故选 D。 19.What can be inferred from the article? A.Residential energy use should be stopped. B.Chronic exposure to particulate matter increases the chance of early death by 3%. C.The number of deaths is expected to double by 2050 due to air pollution. D.It is urgent for the government to take action. 答案 D 解析 推理判断题。 阅读短文可知这篇短文重点介绍了中国的空气污染问题以及空气污染的 严重危害。对于政府来说迫切地需要采取行动。故选 D。 Ⅲ.任务型阅读 When one starts thinking from one’s higher mind or spiritual mind，it’s called critical thinking.Our lower mind or the brain is basically limited and egocentric(以自我为中心的) in nature.It’s driven by our own emotions，needs and personal likes and dislikes.It’s also easily exposed to outward influences.Compared to normal thinking，critical thinking is rational(理性 的)and creative. Nobody is born with the ability to think critically.As we grow，our life experiences teach us to think more analytically.But only depending on life experiences isn’t enough.There’s a great need today to teach students to think deeply and critically about relevant issues，so that they can grow into mature thinking adults with adequate problemsolving skills.Due to lack of guidance， the thought process of today’s students is somewhat inconsistent and doesn’t follow any
B.Stroke. D.All above.
methodical order.They tend to focus on acquiring more new and isolated(孤立的) facts about any subject matter without understanding the basic concept of it.Consequently，they fail to summarize what they’ve learned. Teaching critical thinking should be strictly carried out by some welltrained instructors， who often adopt some of the basic methods.One of the best methods is to have them join in a group discussion or debate any issue.Therefore，students can liberate their thoughts and ideas without limiting themselves to any given set of norms(准则).It’s also good to persuade students to express their opinions through writing.Writing helps one express himself in a brief and wellorganized manner.It makes one stay focused on the content and draw effective inferences.Solving numerical(数字的) problems or puzzles can be considered as another method of teaching critical thinking as it sharpens students’ problemsolving skills.There’re other methods that help students improve their logical reasoning skills.For instance，during exams students should be examined on problems or situations that test their analytical abilities and their creativity rather than what they’ve memorized. Teaching critical thinking can bring about a huge change in the entire thought process of students.They can face the challenges of life confidently and achieve their goals.It’s helpful in building up a productive mind that thinks independently and puts forward wise ideas and plans.Normally ， critical thinkers behave rationally.It’s been realized that teaching critical thinking has a positive effect on the overall development of an individual’s personality.