介词与连词教师版新

介词与介词短语
考点关注:
1. 易混介词的辨析 2. 固定的介词短语 3. 介词 与名词、动词、形容词等的搭配 4. “介词加+关系代词”在定语从句中的运用 5. 分词形式的介词 ? 介词一般位于名词或代词前,表示该词与句中其他成分的关系. ? 介词后接名词或动词的 ing 形式 【时间介词】 表示时间的介词主要有 at, on 和 in at: a. 表示某一具体的时刻 He usually goes to school at 3:20 b. 表示一天中某段时间或特定的时候 at night, at noon, at this time of year, at that time c. 表示节日, 泛指 at Christmas, at Halloween on a, 表示具体某一天, on May 1st b, 表示在周几及其早、中、晚。 on Monday, on Sunday afternoon, on a cold night c, 表示在节日, on New Year’s Day in a, 表示一天中的早、中、晚, in the morning, in the evening. b, 表示较长的时间段,如月份,季节, 年份,世纪等. in the 20th century, in 1989, in summer, in May

其他表示时间的用法:
in, after 在??之后 “in +段时间”表示将来的一段时间以后; “after+段时间”表示过去的一段时间以后; “after+将来点时间”表示将来的某一时刻以后。 My mother will come back three or four days. He arrived five months. She will appear five o’clock this afternoon from, since 自从?? from 仅说明什么时候开始,不说明某动作或情况持续多久; since 表示某动作或情况持续至说话时刻,通常与完成时连用。 He studied the piano the age of three. They have lived here 1978.(现在还学着呢) 注意:在 last, next, this, that, some, every, all 或者 tomorrow, yesterday, today 等词之前一律不用介词:

We meet every day. Where did you go last weekend? Where are you going next week? 【地点介词】 1)表示地点位置的介词, 主要有 at, on, in, to at (1)表示在小地方(一个点); (2)表示“在??附近,旁边” at home, at the bus stop, at school He is sitting at the desk. He arrived at the airport at 9:00 am. in (1)表示 在大地方; (2)表示“在?范围之内” 。 In Paris, in the water, in school He arrived in Shanghai yesterday. Jiangsu lies in the east of China. on (1)表示在一个表面, (2)毗邻,接壤 There are many books on the desk. Russia lies on the north of China.(根据语义判断是 in 还是 on、to) to 表示在??范围外,不强调是否接壤 Fujian is to the south of Jiangsu Province. (根据语义判断是 in 还是 on、to) 2)above, over, on 在??上 above 指在?上方,不强调是否垂直,与 below 相对; over 指垂直的上方,与 under 相对,但 over 与物体有一定的空间,不直接接触。 on 表示某物体上面并与之接触。 The bird is flying my head. There is a bridge the river. He put his watch the desk. 3)below, under, beneath 在??下面 below 表示在??下,不一定在正下方 under 表示在?正下方, 强调垂直 beneath 表示双方有接触面,较正式用语 There is a cat the table. Please write your answers the question. The sun is now the horizon. 3.表运动方向的介词:across, through 通过,穿过 across 表示横过,即从物体表面通过,与 on 有关; through 穿过,即从物体内部穿过,与 in 有关。 She walked the road. He walked the forest. 4.表示“在??之间”的介词:between, among

between 指在两个人或两个事物之间; among 指在三个或三个以上的人或事物之间。 There is a football match Class 1 and 2 The teacher is standing the students. 5.表示其他意义的介词 1)on ,about 关于 on 表示书,文章或研究是关于某方面题材,话题的, 学术性的, about 表示内容较为普通,不那么正式。 He is writing a book on cooking. He told me a lot about his vocation (其实不用分这么清楚的,随便用就行) 2)by, with, in 表示方法、手段、工具 by 以??方法、手段或泛指某种交通工具;

by bus, by foot, by doing
with 表示用 ?工具、手段,一般指具体的工具手段 write with a pen in 表示用?方式,用?语言(语调、笔墨、颜色)等;in good manners, in red He makes a living selling newspapers. He broke the window a stone. The foreigner spoke to us English. 3)except, besides 除了 except 除??之外,不包括在内 besides 除??之外,包括在内 翻译:除了张先生没去,我们都去看电影了。 除了张先生之外,我们也都去看电影了。 4) as 作为, 担任, 像? He works as a waiter in that restaraut. a. as adj/adv as? 和?一样 She is as tall as her sister. b, as adj/adv as possible/one can 尽可能? I will come as soon as possible/I can c, as well as 和, 不但,而且, 和?一样好 Jim as well as his brother, went out for a party as well 也,一般用在句末,相当于 also you like listening to music,I like it as well. ※介词常用 right, well, all, just, only 等副词修饰, 可表强调 Right after dinner, the boy went to bed. She went to the party only because of him.

介词填空
1.Taiwan is ________ the southeast of China.(in, on, to) 2.Go _________ the bridge _________ the river, you’ ll find the shop. (across, through; over, above) 3.She returned to her country _________five years.(in, after, for) 4.He would like to meet her __________8:00 and 9:00 tomorrow morning.(between, among )

5.The Greens have lived in China ________ three years. (in, for, after) 【热点透视】 热点 1 on, at, in 的区别 三个介词如果指时间概念,on 用在具体的某一天前面,at 用在具体的时刻前面,in 用在时 间段的前面;三个介词如果表示地点,on 表示在物体的表面,at 表示一个小的地点,in 表 示在物体内部;三个介词还可以表示“在……方面”,主要是从语境的角度去区别。 例 1: The accident is reported to have occurred _____ the first Sunday in February. A. at B. on C. in D. to 例 2: My uncle lives ___A_ 103 Chaoyang Street_____ Beijing. A. at; in B. on; at C. in; on D. of; to 热点 2 with, by, in 表示“用” with 通常指“用”具体的或有形的工具、器官等。有时也表示“用”某种手段、音调等。 by 表示“用”方式、手段等,后面常接动名词,后接名词时,该名词前一般不加修饰语。 in 指“用”语言、字体、墨水、体裁、方式、风格、现金、顺序等。 例:Please wait for me here. I’ll be back ____ 20 minutes, that is, ____ two o’clock. A. in; in B. after; after C. after; in D. in; after 热点 3 besides, except, except for, but, apart from 表示“除……之外” (1)besides 表示“除……之外(还有)”,其宾语包括在内。 (2)except 表示“除了”。其宾语不包括在内。 (3)except for 强调整体中的细节,意思是“只是”,前后的事物不属于同类。 (4)but 常可与 except 互换,强调“不在其中”,通常与 all, every, everybody, nobody, nothing 等不定代词连用。 (5)apart from 意为“除……之外”,即可以表示 besides 的意思,也可以表示 except 或 except for 的意思。 例 1 : Some people choose jobs for other reasons _____ money these days. (2007.全国 II.16 ) A. For B. except C. besides D. with 例 2:I know nothing about the accident ______ what I read in the newspaper. A. except B. besides C. except for D. except that 例 3:The article is quite good ______ some spelling mistakes. A. except B. besides C. except for D. except that 热点 4 介词短语的辨析考查 英语中的复合介词是考试中经常涉及到的内容, 只要能够在具体的语境中理解它的意思, 就能够正确作答。 例 1:____ fire, all exits must be kept clear. A. In place of B. Instead of C. In case of D. In spite of 例 2:I have offered to paint the house ____ a week’s accommodation A. In exchange for B. with regard to C. by means of D. in place of 例 3: _____ your advice, I would have been caught in the traffic and I wouldn’t have been there on time. A. In spite of B. But for C. Because of D. As for 热点 5 介词与名词、动词、形容词等的搭配 例 1:scientists are convinced _____ the positive effect of laughter ____ physical and mental health. (2007. .23)

A. of; at

B. by; in

C. of; on

D. on; at

热点 6 “介词+关系代词”在定语从句中的运用 例: The author _____ Beijing University _____ all of us are familiar will pay a visit to our company. A. from; whom B. in; to whom C. from; with whom D. in; who 解题指导:对于介词与其他词的搭配,除了掌握一些常见的搭配外,要善于从句中找出搭配 形式,特别是分割开了的搭配形式;要注意还原短语,选出需用的介词。 热点 8 分词形式的介词 此类介词常考的有:considering(就……而论); given(如果有……,考虑到……); including(包 括); concerning(关于) 。 例 1: _____ his old age, he is healthy enough. A. Considered B. To consider C. Considering D. consider 例 2: _____ his support, I think we will win the election. A. If B. Given C. Giving D. Have

连词的用法
一、连词定义: 用来连接词、短语或句子的词。 e.g. I study English and Chinese. Does he work at school or in the hospital? I get up early, but my brother gets up late. 二、连词分类:

三、用法 1.并列连词 --- 连接具有并列关系的词,短语或句子。 常见的有: (1)表并列关系的 and, both…and, not only…but also, neither…nor,as well as(也,和)等。 (2)表选择关系的 or, either…or 等。 (3)表转折关系的 but, however 等。 (4)表因果关系的 for, so 等。 考点一: and (“和,并且”) 与 or (“否则”) 1)判断改错:

They sat down and talk about something. They started to dance and sang. I saw two men sitting behind and ate there. “and” 连接平行结构 2)翻译:① 我喜欢英语和数学。I like English _____ math. ②我不喜欢英语和数学。I don’t like English ____ math. (1)肯定句中用“and” 表“和”; (2)否定句中用“or”表“和” 。 考点二 : 表转折的连词 but 和 however: e.g. (他努力工作,但以失败告终。) He worked hard, ______ he failed at last. He worked hard. _________, he failed at last. 区别: but 后没有逗号,直接连接分句; however 后有逗号相隔,可放句末。 考点三 : ※although/ though 和 but 这两个关联词不能同时用 改错: (1)Although he is over sixty, but he works as hard as others. (2)“Because John was ill, so I took him to the doctor.” 正确吗? ※because 和 so 等关联词都不能同时使用。 考点四:--- 连词词组 : either A or B “或者 A 或者 B” neither A nor B “既不 A 也不 B” not only A but also B “不仅 A 而且 B” 【连接主语 时,谓语“就近原则”】 ① Either you or I _____ going to the party. (或者你或者我将去晚会。) ② Neither I nor he ______ seen the movie. (我和他都没有看过这部电影。 ) ③ Not only you but also he ____speaks____ French. (不但你而且他也讲法语。 ) 2. 从属连词---用来引导从句。常见的从属连词有: (1)引导时间状语从句的 after, before, when, while, as, until, till, since, as soon as 等。 (2)引导条件状语从句的 if, unless 等。 (3)引导原因状语从句的 because, as, since 等。 (4)引导目的状语从句的 so that, in order that 等。 (5)引导让步状语从句的 though, although, even if 等。 (6)引导结果状语从句的 so that, so…that, such…that 等。 (7)引导比较状语从句的 than, as…as 等。 (8)引导宾语从句的 that, if , whether 等。 考点一 “when” 和 “while” Mr. White was taking a shower _____ the UFO landed on the street. A. where B. while C. when D. whether

_____ Mr. White was taking a shower,the UFO landed on the street. A. where B. while C. when D. whether when 引导的状语从句的动作多为终止性动词,也为可持续动词;但 while 只能是可持续动 词。 考点二 not…until/ till 直到……才 …till 直到……为止 翻译:我会到你回来时才睡觉。 我会一直工作到你回来。 翻译:他直到 3 岁才会讲话。 我父亲直到我们吃完饭时才回来。My father ____ come back ____ we____supper. 他经常等到妈妈叫他才起床。He ____ get up until his mother wakes him up. 考点三 so that:①为了; ② 所以,结果 He took the MP3 player with him _____ he could enjoy music during the trip. A. because B. so that C. when ①He got up early ____ he could catch the early bus. 他起早是为了赶上早班车。(表目的) ②He got up early so that he caught the early bus. 他起早,结果赶上了早班车。 (表结果) He got up so early that he caught the early bus. so…that 如此……以致

情境对话 :根据对话内容,填入适当连词。
Funny Husband (H) & Wife (W) about Shopping H:“What are we going to do, my dear?” W: “Go shopping.” H:“We can do nothing ___except/but____shopping.” W:“In fact, __neither_____ you __nor__ I like shopping.” H: “Why must you do the things __that___ you don’t like?” W: “_Because__ my skirts are out of style, ___ 或 so I want to buy a new one.” W:(In the clothing shop.)…I don’t know__if_ they fit(适合) me. ” H: “I don’t know what/ which____ you really like. Just go inside and try them on.” H: (对 seller 笑笑) “Can you talk to me for a few minutes?” S:Why? H:Because if/when/ as soon as_____my wife sees (that) I am talking to other ladies, she will be angry at once and leave. S: “Then why do you let her go?” H: “I want to leave and/ so that___ I won’t pay for them.” 作业 1. Henry, __ Mary and Tom, is coming to China for a visit? Which is WRONG? A. together with B. like C. besides D. but in addition to

2. His father will be back from London__a few days. A. since B. in C. on D. after 3. He usually goes to work on time __. A.except for raining days B.besides it rains

C.but that it rains

D.except on rainy days

4. Did you have trouble __the post office? A. to have found B. with finding C. to find D. in finding

5. If you keep on, you’ll succeed __. A. in time B. at one time C. at the same time D. on time 6. The train leaves__6:00 pm, so I have to be at the station__5:40 pm at the latest? A. at; until B. for; after C. at; by D. before; around 7. ___the gate and you’ll find the entrance__the park__the other side. A.Through;to;on B.Along;of;on C.Down;to;at D.Up;of;by

8. One__ five will have the chance to join in thegame. A. within B. among C. in D. from

9. —— Do you go there __bus?—— No, we go there __a train. A. in;on B. on; on C. by; in D. by; with

10. I made the coat __my own hands. It was made__hand, not with a machine. A. in; in B. in; with C. with; by D. with; with

11. The trees __front of the house are __the charge of Mr. Li. A. in; in B. at; in C. in; by D. from; in

12. The old man died__cold __a cold night. A. from; at B. of; in C. of; on D. for; during

13. My uncle lives__116 Changhe Street. His room is __the sixth floor. A. at; on B. to; at C. on; in D. of; to

14. I don’t think you can work out the maths problem__her help. A. since B. unless C. with D. without

15. He is running__the wind towards the station__Tom running __the right. A.down;and; on to 16. In Hangzhou Mr. Black was so struck __ the beauty of nature that he stayed __another night. A. at; on B. with; at C. for; in D. by; for B.against;with;on C.for;with;in D.with;while;

17.— How long has the bookshop been in business? — __1987. A. After B. In C. From D. Since

18. We offered him our congratulations__his passing the college entrance exams. A. at B. on C. for D. of

19. Guangdong lies__the south of China and Fujian is__the east of it. Hainan is__the coast of the mainland. A. in; in; on B. in; on; off C. on; to; on D. in; to; away

20. The student, __whom all the teachers are pleased,is very strict __himself __ everything. A.to;with;in B.with;with;in C.with;at;with D.at;with;at

答案及简析 1.D。 “名词+介词短语”作主语时,谓语动词要与前面的名词保持一致。D 项表达错误。 2.B。表示“从现在起多长时间之后”用 in。 3.D。except 后接动词不定式可与 but 连用,但 except 后还可接 that, when, where 等从 句或介词短语,在表示对细节加以纠正之意时用 except for。 4.D。have trouble/difficulty in doing sth./with sth.是一个习惯用法,表示“做某 事吃力、费劲” 。 5.A。 in time 除平时熟悉的 “及时” 之意外, 还有 “迟早” 的意思, 相当于 sooner or later。 6.C。具体时间即点时间前常用介词 at, 表示“到??为止”用 by。 7.A。through 指“从某事物的内部空间穿过” ;entrance 后习惯接 to;表示“在??边” 用 on。 8.C。 “one in five”指“五人中有一个” ,即“one out of five” 。 9.C。 “乘坐交通工具”时,用 by+抽象名词(无冠词的名词)或用 in/on 加冠词再加交通 工具。 10.C。 “由手工制作”用固定词组 with one’s hands 或 by hand。 11.A。in front of 表示“在??前面” ;in the charge of 表示“在??掌管/控制下” 。 12.C。die of 用于疾病、情感、饥饿、寒冷等原因造成的死亡,die from 指除了疾病、情 感、饥饿、寒冷以外的原因造成的死亡,on a cold night 为特定时间。 13.A。在相对小的地点或门牌前用 at;房间“在第几层”用“on... floor” 。 14.D。 “在??帮助下”用 with,“没有??帮助”用 without。 15.B。 “逆/顶风而跑”用 against; “with +宾+宾补”表示伴随;表示“在左/右边” 用 on。16.D。 “be struck by”意为“被??迷住/打动” ,stay for the night 表示“留 下来过夜” 。 17.D。since 常与现在完成时连用。 18.B。offer sb. congratulations on sth. or doing sth.=congratulate sb. on sth. or doing sth. 19.B。in the south 表示在“一个范围之内的南部” ,on the east 表示“在东边接壤” ,off the coast 表示“离开海岸” 。 20.B。 表示 “对??感到满意” , 用 be pleased with。 此句为定语从句; 主句中用了 be strict

with sb. in sth.句型。


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