Unit1 grammar_图文

Subjunctive Mood

一. 语气的分类
?陈述语气 I went to the theatre yesterday.
?祈使语气 Let’s go.

? 虚拟语气
If I were you, I would not leave

her alone.

条件句: 真实条件句 和虚拟条件句 两

种。
a. 真实条件句 表示条件是真的或有可 能实现的, 采用陈述语气。 b. 虚拟条件句 表示条件是无法实现或 几乎无法实现的, 采用虚拟语气。

二. ‘if ’虚拟条件句的概念
由 ‘if’ 引导的虚拟条件句叫作 ‘if’虚 拟条件句 I could easily recognize him if I had seen him before. 其他虚拟条件句 Without your help, I couldn’t have finished my work on time.

三. ‘if ’虚拟条件句的结构 a. 表示与现在事实相反 的假设 b. 表示与过去事实相反 的假设 c. 表示与将来事实相反 的假设

虚拟语气
1. 虚拟语气用于条件状语从句中 (1) 表示与现在事实相反的假设, 条件 状语从句中的谓语动词用“过去式(be 动词的过去式用were)”, 而主句中的谓 语动词“would / should/ could / might + 动词原形”。

If I were a boy, I would join the army.

What would you

do if you won the
lottery? If I won the lottery, I would…

If I won the lottery, I would buy

an expensive car.

If I had a lot of money I would buy a villa.

If I had a lot of money now, I would travel around the world. If it were fine now, I would go shopping.

PRACTICE 1: Fill in the blanks. a. If they were ____ (be) here, they __________ would take (take) your advice. b. If the world-war _____ burst (burst) out

again, what _____________ would happen (happen)
to our people on the earth?

c. If the policeman ________ were not (be not) in
that room, it ________ could be (be) very dangerous. d. If I were ____ (be) in your position, I _________ would ask (ask) for teacher’s help.

2. 与过去的事实相反 从句的谓语用had+过去分词 主句的谓语用should/would /could/might have +done

If he __________ had driven more carefully, he _________________ would not have had the car accident yesterday.

learnt how to swim, If I had ________

I __________________ would not have been trapped on this island.

PRACTICE 2: Fill in the blanks.
a. If Tom ________ had been (be) more careful in the exam, he ________________ would have passed (pass) it already. b. If you _______ had got (get) up earlier, you ________________ would have caught (catch) the first train.

c. If I _______ had met (meet) you yesterday, we would ______________ have gone (go) to the concert together.

3. 与将来事实相反
从句的谓语用: 动词过去式或 were to do 或should do 形式 主句谓语用should/would /could/ might +动词原形。

If he got up early,

he would be on time.

假如他来了, 我们对他说什么呢?

If he were to come, what should we say
to him. 假如他看见我, 就会认识我。 If he should see me, he would know me.

PRACTICE 3: Fill in the blanks a. If there should ________ be (be) no natural resource any more, we should ___________ make (make) use of nuclear power . b. What ____________ would happen (happen) if you ____________ should get up (get up) too late tomorrow?

c. If Robots _____________ were to control (control) would be the world some day, there ________ (be) no friendship.

主句与从句的动作发生在不同的时间,
这时主从句谓语动词的虚拟语气形式因

时间不同而不同, 这叫做混合条件句。 If you had asked him yesterday, you
would know what to do now.

If the staff had been more careful,

the mall would not be on fire now.

一.虚拟语气在条件状语从句中的用法。

条件 If 从句的谓语 主句的谓语形式 从句 形式
would/could/should 现在 过去时(were) /might +V. (原)

条件 If 从句的谓 从句 语形式

主句的谓语形式 would/could/should

过去 过去完成时 /might + have+ p.p.

条件 If 从句的谓语 从句 形式 未来

主句的谓语形式 would/could/ should/ might +V. (原)

1.过去时
2.should+V.

3. were to do

二.
I wish (that)……从句中用虚拟语气

1) 表示对现在情况的虚拟: 从句动词用 过去式 (be动词一般用were) 。

I wish I were as tall as you.

I wish I were a bird.

I wish every day were my birthday.

(2) 表示对过去情况的虚拟:从句动词

常用“had+过去分词”。 I wish/wished I hadn’t eaten so much watermelon.

The party was terrible, I wish

I had never gone to it.

(3) 表示对将来的主观愿望: 从句动词形 式为 “ would+动词原形”。

I wish you would come soon.

I wish it would rain tomorrow.

三: 由as if (as though) 引导状语从句时, 从 句谓语形式为:过去式(be用were)或 “had+过去分词”。

He behaves as if he owned the house.

(But he doesn’t own it or probably doesn’t own it or we don’t know whether he owns it or not.)

She talks about Rome as though she had been there himself.

四: even if ( even though)即使
eg: Even if he were here, he could not solve the problem.

Even if I had been busy then, I would have helped you.

五:1.表示命令、建议、要求等一类词 后面的宾语从句中 一坚持;二命令;三建议;四要求 insist, order, command, suggest, advise, require, demand, etc.
We suggested that the meeting (should) be put off. They insisted that the boy (should) go with them.

注意:suggest 当表示“暗示、表明“讲 时,insist 表示”坚持认为“之意时,应 用陈述语气。

eg: The smile on his face suggested that he was satisfied with our work.
他脸上的表情表明他对我们的工作很满意。

The man insisted that he had never stolen the money.
那个人坚持说他没有偷钱。

2.It is suggested/ ordered/ demanded that…从句中的谓语动词用should+动词原形,
should可以省略。

eg: It is suggested that the meeting (should) be put off.
有人建议他推迟会议。

It is ordered that the work (should) be done at once.
据命令这项工作应该立刻做。

3.在suggestion / proposal / order / plan / advice / idea / request 等名词后的表语和同位 语从句中要用“should+动词原形” should 可以省略. My idea is that we (should ) think it over before accepting it. My suggestion that we (should) have a meeting has been accepted by others.

We all agree to that suggestion that the meeting (should) be put off.

六. It

is (high / about ) time that…从 句中的谓语动词用过去式或should+ 动词原形,should不能省略。
eg: It is high time that you went / should go to school.

七. if only 引导的感叹句(要是...该有 多好啊)

If only I knew the answer!

If only I had seen the film yesterday!
八.would rather + 句子 动词用过去式 表示与现在或将来相反 I would rather you told me the truth. 我宁愿你告诉我真相。

I would rather you had told me the truth

yesterday.

九.It is necessary/important/strange /natural/impossible / surprising / a pity+ that从句。

eg: It is necessary that you (should) clean the room after work.
It is important that he (should) work harder at his lessons.

Homework
句型练习 (用If I were you句型翻译下 列句子) 1. 我要是你的话, 我就会把英语学好。 2. 如果你昨天来, 你就会看见他。 3. 万一明天下雨, 我们就不到那儿去。 4. 我希望我十年前认识他。 5. 他对待我就像对待他自己的儿子一样。


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