第一讲 句子成分 一．句子的定义 句子是包含主语和谓语部分的一组词。它有一定的语法结构和语调，用以表达一个比较完整的独立的概念。句子开 头第一个字母要大写，句子末尾要有句号、问号或感叹号。如： 1.The foundation of democracy is the will of the people to preserve liberty. 2.What motives governed his actions? 3.What a beautiful girl she is! 二．词类概述 能够自由运用的最小语言单位叫词。根据词的形式、意义及其在句中的作用所作的分类叫词类（parts of speech） 。 英语的词通常分为十大类，即名词、冠词、代词、数词、形容词、副词、动词、介词、连词和感叹词。 三．句子成分 句子成分的定义： 构成句子的各个部分叫做句子成分。句子成分有主要成分和次要成分；主要成分有主语和谓语；次要成分有表语、 宾语、定语、状语、补足语和同位语。 （一）主语(Subject) 是一个句子所叙述的主体，一般位于句首。但在 there be 结构、疑问句（当主语不疑问词时）和倒装句中，主语位 于谓语、助动词或情态动词后面。主语可由名词、代词、数词、不定式、动名词、名词化的形容词和主语从句等表 示。例如： 1.During the 1990s, American country music has become more and more popular. 2.We often speak English in class. 3.One-third of the students in this class are girls. 4.To swim in the river is a great pleasure. 5.Smoking does harm to the health. 6.The rich should help the poor. 指出下列句中主语的中心词 ①The teacher with two of his students is walking into the classroom. ② There is an old man coming here. ③ The useful dictionary was given by my mother last year. ④ To do today's homework without the teacher's help is very difficult. ⑤ Exercising half an an hour a day is good to our health. ⑥ where to find help is still a problem. ⑦ That he won the first prize surprised us all.(It surprised us all that he won the first prize.) 指出必修一 Unit2 课文第一段句子主语的中心词 ①At the end of the 16th century, about five to seven million people spoke English. ② Nearly all of them lived in England. ③ Later in the next century, people from England made voyages to conquer other parts of the world and because of that, English began to be spoken in many other countries. ④ Today, more people speak English as their first, second or a foreign language than ever before.
（二）谓语 谓语 (Predicate) 说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和状态。动词在句中作谓语，一般放在主语之后。谓语的构成 如下： 1、简单谓语：由一个动词或动词短语构成。如： He practices running every morning. The plane took off at ten o’clock. 2、复合谓语： （1）由情态动词或其他助动词加动词原形构成。如： You may keep the book for two weeks. He has caught a bad cold. （2）由系动词加表语构成。如： We are students. 注意：谓语与主语在人称与数方面要保持一致。 （三）表语 表语(Predicative)用以说明主语的性质、特征、状态与身份，它一般位于系动词（如 be, become, get, look, grow, turn, seem 等）之后。表语一般由名词、代词、形容词、数词、 副词、不定式、动名词、分词、介词短语及表语从句表 示。例如： 1.Our teacher of English is an American.（名词） 2.Is it yours?（代词） 3.The weather has turned cold.（形容词） 4.The speech is exciting.（分词） 5.Three times seven is twenty one?（数词） 6.His job is to teach English.（不定式） 7.His hobby is playing football.（动名词） 8.The meeting is of great importance.（介词短语） 9.Time is up. The class is over.（副词） 10.The truth is that he has never been abroad.（表语从句 注意：系动词（Linking verb)用于连接主语和表语，说明主语的状态，性质特征和身份等 1）状态系动词用来表示主语状态，只有 be 一词，例如： He is a teacher. 2）持续系动词用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度，主要有 keep, rest, remain, stay, lie, stand, 例如： He always kept silent at meeting. 3）表像系动词用来表示“看起来像”这一概念，主要有 seem, appear, look, 例如：He seems (to be) very sad. 4）感官系动词主要有 feel, smell, sound, taste, 例如：This kind of cloth feels very soft. 5） 变化系动词表示主语变成什么样， 主要有 become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come, run.例如： He became mad after that. 6）终止系动词表示主语已终止动作，主要有 prove, turn out, 表达"证实"，"变成"之意，例如：The rumor proved false. His plan turned out a success. （四）宾语 宾语（Object）表示动作的对象或承受者，一般位于及物动词和介词后面。例如： 1.They went to see an exhibition yesterday. 2.The heavy rain prevented me from coming to school on time. 3.How many dictionaries do you have? I have five.
4.They helped the old with their housework yesterday. 5.He pretended not to see me. 6.I enjoy listening to popular music. 7.I think（that）he is fit for his office. 宾语种类： （1）双宾语（间接宾语+直接宾语） ，例如：Lend me your dictionary, please. To: write, tell, pass, give, send, promise, show, hand, read, tell, bring, throw 等，例如：He sent the novel to William yesterday. For: leave, buy, build, choose, cook, draw, find, get, order, post, save 等，例如： She bought a gift for her mother. （2）复合宾语（宾语+宾补） ，例如：They elected him their monitor. 下列动词只能接不定式做宾语: ask, agree, care, choose, demand, dare, decide, expect, fail, help, hope, learn, manage, offer, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, want, wish, desire 等，如： He refused to lend me his bike. 下列动词只能接动名词做宾语: admit, avoid, advise, consider, enjoy, excuse, escape, finish, imagine, mind, practise, suggest 等，如： John has admitted breaking the window . 下列动词既可接不定式，也可接动名词做宾语，但意义不同，如 stop, mean, try, remember, forget, regret 等。 （五）宾语补足语 英语中有些及物动词，除有一个直接宾语以外，还要有一个宾语补足语（Object Complement） ，才能使句子的意义 完整。带有宾语补足语的一般句型为：某些及物动词（如 make 等)+宾语+宾补） 。宾补可由名词、形容词、副词、 不定式、分词、介词短语和从句充当。例如： 1.His father named him Dongming. 2.They painted their boat white. 3.Let the fresh air in. 4.You mustn’t force him to lend his money to you. 5.We saw her entering the room. 6.We found everything in the lab in good order. 7.We will soon make our city what your city is now. （六）定语 修饰名词或代词的词、短语或从句称为定语(Attribute)。定语可由以下等成分表示： 1.Guilin is a beautiful city.（形容词） 2.China is a developing country; America is a developed country.（分词） 3.There are thirty women teachers in our school. （名词） 4.His rapid progress in English made us surprised.（代词） 5.Our monitor is always the first to enter the classroom.（不定式短语） 6.The teaching plan for next term has been worked out.（动名词） 7.He is reading an article about how to learn English.（介词短语） 8.Farmers who saw us stared at us as if we are walking skeletons. (定语从句) 更多例子： They are women workers. 她们是女工。 （名词作定语） Tom's father didn't write home until yesterday. 汤姆的父亲直到昨天才给家里写信。 （所有格名词作定语） Equal pay for equal work should be introduced. 应当实行同工同酬。 （形容词作定语） The play has three acts. 这出戏有三幕。 （数词作定语）
This is her first trip to Europe. 这是她首次欧洲之行。 （代词、数词和介词短语作定语） China is a developing country. 中国是一个发展中国家。 （现在分词作定语） You haven't kept your promise to write us often. 你没有遵守给我们经常写信的诺言。 （动词不定式短语作定语） My cat has a good nose for milk. 我的猫对牛奶嗅觉灵敏。 （介词短语作定语） Those who want to go to Tibet are to sign their names here. 想去西藏的人须在此签名。 （从句作定语） （七）状语 修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子，说明动作或状态特征的句子成分，叫做状语（Adverbial） 。可由以下形式表 示 ： 1.Light travels most quickly. 2.He has lived in the city for ten years. 3.He is proud to have passed the national college entrance examination. 4.He is in the room making a model plane. 5.Wait a minute. 6.Once you begin, you must continue. 更多例子：These products are selling quickly. 这些产品现在十分畅销。 （副词作状语） He is knee deep in snow. 他踩在齐膝深的雪里。 （名词作状语） The best fish swim near the bottom. 好鱼居水底。 （有价值的东西不能轻易得到。 ） （介词短语作地点状语） She sat there doing nothing. 她坐在那里无所事事。 （现在分词短语作伴随状语） We'll send a car over to fetch you. 我们将派一辆车去接你。 （动词不定式短语作目的状语） She was slow to make up her mind. 她迟迟不能下决心。 （动词不定式短语作状语） Strike while the iron is hot. 趁热打铁。 （从句作时间状语） 9 种状语种类如下： 1. How about meeting again at six? 2.Last night she didn’t go to the dance party because of the rain. 3.I shall go there if it doesn’t rain. 4.Mr Smith lives on the third floor. 5.She put the eggs into the basket with great care. She came in with a dictionary in her hand. 6.In order to catch up with the others, I must work harder. 7.He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately. 8.She works very hard though she is old. 9.I am taller than he is. （八）同位语（Appositive）对前面的名词或代词做进一步的解释，通常由名词、数词、代词或从句担任，如： This is Mr. Zhou, our headmaster. （九）插入语（Parenthesis）对一句话做一些附加的解释，通常有 to be honest , I think (suppose, believe---)等，如： To be frank, I don’t quite agree with you. 巩固练习 (一).用横线划出下列句中主语的中心词 ①The teacher with two of his students is walking into the classroom. ② There is an old man coming here. ③ The useful dictionary was given by my mother last year.
④ To do today's homework without the teacher's help is very difficult. ⑤ Exercising half an an hour a day is good to our health. ⑥ where to find help is still a problem.(It is still a problem where to find help.) ⑦ That he won the first prize surprised us all.(It surprised us all that he won the first prize.) (二) 用横线划出句中谓语的中心词 ①I don't like the picture on the wall. ② The days get longer and longer when summer comes. ③ Do you usually go to school by bus? ④ There will be a meeting at the library this afternoon. ⑤ Did the twins have porridge for their breakfast? ⑥ Tom didn't do his homework yesterday. ⑦ What I want to tell you is this. ⑧ We had better send for a doctor. ⑨ He is interested in music. ⑩ Whom did you give my book to? (三) 用横线划出下列句中的宾语 ① My brother hasn't done his homework. ② People all over the world speak English. ③ You must pay good attention to your pronunciation. ④ How many new words did you learn last class? ⑤ Some of the students in the school want to go swimming, how about you? ⑥ The old man sitting at the gate said he was ill. ⑦ They made him monitor of the class. ⑧ Go across the bridge and you will find the museum on the left. ⑨ You will find it useful after you leave school. ⑩ They didn't know who "Father Christmas" really is. (四) 用横线划出下列句中的表语 ①The old man was feeling very tired. ② Why is he worried about Jim? ③ The leaves have turned yellow. ④ Soon They all became interested in the subject. ⑤ She was the first to learn about it. (五) 用横线划出下列句中的定语 ①They use Mr, Mrs with the family name. ② What is your given name? ③ On the third lap are Class 1 and Class 3. ④ I am afraid some people forgot to sweep the floor. ⑤ The man downstairs was trying to sleep. ⑥ I am waiting for the sound of the other shoe! (六) 用横线划出下列句中的宾语补足语 ①She likes the children to read newspapers and books in the reading-room. ② He asked her to take the boy out of school. ③ She found it difficult to do the work. ④ They call me Lily sometimes. ⑤ I saw Mr Wang get on the bus. ⑥ Did you see Li Ming playing football on the playground just now? (七)用横线划出下列句中的状语
①There was a big smile on her face. ② Every night he heard the noise upstairs. ③ He began to learn English when he was eleven. ④ The man on the motorbike was travelling too fast. ⑤ With the medicine box under her arm, Miss Li hurried off. ⑥ She loves the library because she loves books. ⑦ I am afraid that if you've lost it, you must pay for it. ⑧ The students followed Uncle Wang to see the other machine. (八) 用横线划出句中的直接宾语和间接宾语 ①Please tell us a story. ② My father bought a new bike for me last week. ③ Mr Li is going to teach us history next term. ④ Here is a pen.Give it to Tom. ⑤ Did he leave any message for me? （九）.指出下列句子划线部分是什么句子成分： 1. The students got on the school bus. 3. I shall answer your question after class. 5. They went hunting together early in the morning. 7. He took many photos of the palaces in Beijing 9. He is to leave for Shanghai tomorrow. 11. He managed to finish the work in time. 13. He found it important to master English. 15. To be honest，your pronunciation is not so good. 17. He sat there, reading a newspaper. 19. He noticed a man enter the room. 2. He handed me the newspaper. 4. What a beautiful Chinese painting! 6. His job is to train swimmers. 8. There is going to be an American film tonight. 10. His wish is to become a scientist. 12. Tom came to ask me for advice. 14. Do you have anything else to say? 16. Would you please tell me your address? 18. It is our duty to keep our classroom clean and tidy. 20. The apples tasted sweet.
（十） 用不同符号划分句子成分 1. Our school is not far from my home. 3. All of us considered him honest. 5. He broke a piece of glass. 7. I love you more than her． 9. They pushed the door open. 11. He wrote carefully some letters to his friends. 13. We need a place twice larger than this one.
2. It is a great pleasure to talk with you 4. My grandfather bought me a pair of sports shoes. 6. He made it clear that he would leave the city． 8. Tees turn green when spring comes. 10. Grandma told me an interesting story last night. 12.All the students think highly of his teaching 14. He asked us to sing an English song.
15.We will make our school more beautiful. 17. The old man lives a lonely life.
16. She showed us her many of her pictures.
18. Luckily the 1989 earthquake did not happen in the center of town. 19. The cars made in Japan are better than those in Germany． 20. We must do whatever the people want us to do. 22. Would you please pass me the cup? 24. Do you know the latest news about him? 21. At last he got home, tired and hungry. 23 Mary handed her homework to the teacher. 25. I’ll get my hair cut tomorrow.
翻 译 练 习： 主谓结构 （ 主语 ＋ 不及物动词 ） 1 你应当努力学习。_______________________________________________________________________________ 2 她昨天回家很晚。________________________________________________________________________________ 3 那天早上我们谈了很多。__________________________________________________________________________ 4 会议将持续两个小时。____________________________________________________________________________ 5 在过去的十年里，我的家乡已经发生了巨大的变化。 __________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6 这种事情全世界各地每天都在发生。_________________________________________________________________ 7 每天八时开始上课。 _________________________________________________________________________________ 8 这个盒子重五公斤。 _________________________________________________________________________________ 9 五年前我住在北京。 _________________________________________________________________________________ 主谓宾结构 （主语 ＋及物动词 ＋宾语 ）
1 昨晚我写了一封信。________________________________________________________________________________ 2 今天下午我想同你谈谈。 _____________________________________________________________________________ 3 这本书他读过多次了。______________________________________________________________________________ 4 他们成功地完成了计划。 _____________________________________________________________________________ 5 你们必须在两周内看完这些书。 _______________________________________________________________________ 6 那位先生能流利地说三种语言。 _______________________________________________________________________ 7 我收到了笔友从澳大利亚寄来的信。 ___________________________________________________________________ 8 Jim 还不会自己穿衣服。___________________________________________________________________________
9 我们大家都相信 Jack 是一个诚实男孩。 ________________________________________________________________ 10 他不知道说什麽好。___________________________________________________________________________ 主系表结构 （主语 ＋系动词＋表语 ） 1 我的兄弟都是大学生。___________________________________________________________________________ 2 布朗夫人看起来很健康。___________________________________________________________________________ 3 十五岁他就成为有名的钢琴家了。 _____________________________________________________________________ 4 孩子们，请保持安静。___________________________________________________________________________ 5 她的工作是在幼儿园里照看儿童。 _____________________________________________________________________ 6 他失业了。___________________________________________________________________________ 7 树叶已经变黄了。___________________________________________________________________________ 8 这个报告听起来很有意思。 ___________________________________________________________________________ 双宾语结构 （主语＋双宾动词＋间接宾语＋直接宾语 ） 1 Johnson 先生去年教我们德语。______________________________________________________________________ 2. 奶奶昨晚给我们讲了一个有趣的故事。 ________________________________________________________________ 3. Mary 把钱包交给校长了。___________________________________________________________________________ 4. 请把那本字典递给我好吗？________________________________________________________________________ 5. 他把车票给列车员看。 ___________________________________________________________________________ 6. 这个学期我已经给父母写过三封信了。 ________________________________________________________________ 7. 我父亲已经给我买了一辆新自行车。 __________________________________________________________________ 8. Robinson Crusoe 给自己做了一只小船。______________________________________________________________